This study targets to investigate the impact of Inter-Services of Public Relations (ISPR) production, broadcasted during the war against terrorism, on Pakistani youth. It is hypothesized that ISPR productions have helped in inflating the motivation level of Pakistani youth, thus helping in promoting the nationalism and positive image of Pakistan. Furthermore, the role of ISPR productions in motivating youth to join Pakistan's Army is also explored. A cross-sectional survey research design was used. The sample of this study was comprised of youth aged between 18 to 24 years, selected through the non-probability purposive sample. The measures comprised of a self-constructed indigenous questionnaire assessing the impact of ISPR productions during a military operation in image building, promotion of nationalism and motivation to join the army. The data analyzed through SPSS Version 22.00 yielded insightful findings. The finding revealed that watching ISPR productions helped in instilling a fervent attitude of Pakistani youth towards nationalism and the Pakistani military. There had been a clearer inclination of youth to aspire for joining the military for upholding the nationalism beliefs, and this finding appears promising, keeping in mind the relative declining opinion that has been observed in youth from the past decade pertaining to nationalism and military operations.
1-Rubab Musarrat Lecturer, National University of Modern Languages, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muniba Fatima Zahra Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Media and Communication Studies, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Amna Ashraf Lecturer, National University of Modern Languages, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The modern world operates on the survival of the fittest rule. Hence, there is cutthroat competition among the states, and every state is striving for greater economic development. Development is based on the minimal use of resources which in turn is dependent upon technological innovations. These innovations incur huge research and development costs and can easily be copied to serve as the basis for further developments by the rivals. Thus, the idea of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) was introduced. While there are many advantages that these rights have to offer, they also prove to be deleterious in some ways as they also play a role in restricting innovation by the global North, which further widens the gap between both worlds. This paper traces the history of the IPR and develops an argument that proposes that IPR has been a cause of inequalities and has restricted innovation.
1-Rao Raza Hashim Professor, School of Management, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Bushra Arfeen School of Management, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Affordable and sustainable access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is a key public health issue and focus of Sustainable Development Goals. Literature showed that households having prior knowledge and an acceptable attitude towards WASH practices have less number of diseases. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of respondents' knowledge, attitude and practices towards safe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in South Punjab, Pakistan. The study was mixed-method research. SPSS also applied, and results demonstrate that there was very lack of knowledge about safe WASH practices; the majority of respondents have a traditional attitude. Whereas only 27.3% of respondents have always access to safe drinking water, 96% of respondents were not using any domestic water treatment method, 22.9% were defecating in the open, and the percentage of always handwashing with soap was found to only 29.6%. Social Mobilization programs along with government action to ensure safe WASH conditions are recommended.
1-Hasan Ghaffoor PhD. Scholar, Department of Sociology, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan2-Muhammad Farooq Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Babak Mahmood Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The rapid growth in population, accompanied by theunplanned expansion of the built environment of the town,is shattering the spiritual and historical essence of the town’s urban fabricsimultaneously. As a result, prominent historical monuments like the Tomband Garden of Lalarukh, Maqbara Hakeeman have decayed and are in direneed of attention. The research aims to generate an appropriate tourism planthat could, on the one hand, preserve these monuments and, on the other,could be helpful for the authorities to enhance the tourism potential of thetown. This research paper highlights the significance of historical andcultural heritage, which need to be conserved. The research was initiallyundertaken by identifying the significant historical monuments throughreconnaissance surveys, interviews and literature review by takingHassanabdal as a case study area which is an old historic town located inNorthern Punjab, exhibits diverse remnants from the times of Buddhist,Mughal, Sikh and British invaders. The recommendations were given in thelight of ICOMOS and UNESCO guidelines, keeping in view the currentconservation practices and legislation in Pakistan
1-Faiqa Khilat School of Architecture and Planning, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Fariha Tariq Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Sana Malik School of Architecture and Planning, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The focus of this study is the analysis of Punjabi syllablestructure in the light of Generative Phonology Theory. UnderGenerative Phonology, CV phonology theory is used for the analysis of thePunjabi syllable. CV phonology is a three-tiered model explaining thestructure of the syllable. The data for this study is taken from native Punjabispeakers living in Lahore and its surrounding areas. Results of the studysuggest that Punjabi speakers use four main patterns for Syllableconstruction, namely CV, CVC, V and VC.
1-Muhammad Asad Habib PhD Scholar, Department of Linguistics and Communications, University of Management and Technology ,Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Arshad Ali Khan Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics and Communications, University of Management and Technology ,Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The present study endeavors to analyze the symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Muhammad Hanif’s Red Birds, focusing on the depiction of PTSD felt by major characters in then ovel. The psychological approach along with a descriptive qualitative method, has been used for evaluating the signs of PTSD in the backdrop of Raymond Benedict Flannery's theory. The significance of this study is to appraise the individuals about the hazardous outcomes of trauma. If trauma shows the symptoms of arousal, intrusive, and avoidance, the result is a post-traumatic stress disorder. Using this mechanism, the novel has been analyzed, and then the relevant data has been categorized according to the tenets of the theory. The study discovers the required symptoms of PTSD,i.e., intrusive, avoidance, and arousal, experienced by the characters. Mother Dear develops more intrusive symptoms as compared to arousal and avoidance symptoms, whereas arousal symptoms are more influenced by Momo.
1-Muhammad Ejaz Khan Research Scholar, Northern University Nowshera, KP, Pakistan.2-Aamir Shehzad Assistant Professor, University of Okara, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Shamaila Roohi Lecturer, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Nascent research is conducted on the advancement of discourse analysis in film to include different modes as images, sound and text. This study is focused on how images are embedded within texts in an audio-visual medium such as cinema to highlight political messages; it also seeks to broaden our understanding of politics beyond a relatively narrow conceptualization of the "political" through studying non-traditional discourses such as cinematic discourse. The aim of the study is to develop a systematic approach to film analysis to examine political nuance sin film. The method adopted in this research is Multi modal Discourse Analysis (MDA) focusing on embedding visuals, audio, and text in the film to examine how a political meaning can be conveyed through the interaction between those different modes. Drawing on the multi modal discourse analysis literature, different modalities will be studied to understand how those modes interact in the cinematic discourse. The film, "Cream of the Crop", is selected as an example to examine how political meanings in film can tackle the cinematic representation of the notion of social justice. This study contributes to the vast array of literature on the multi modal discourse analysis of films by focusing on political dynamics within them.
1-Mariam Waheed Mekheimar Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
In the present era, knowing the students' intention towards online learning has become necessary due to the persisting situations of the COVID-19. The current study explores the teaching of English to Biological Science students through online to explore their intentions towards online learning due to different waves of COVID-19 in Pakistan. The study used a rational method that utilizes cross-sectional data.The study employed a random sampling technique to trace the respondents.By using the AMOS, the results of a study underline a positive significant effect of performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), facilitating conditions (FC), and perceived usefulness (PU) on intention towards online learning (ITOL) among the Biological Science students. The findings of the study are significant as they provide valuable insights to comprehend the elements that influence online learning (OL)concerning the teaching of English as a second language.
1-Abdul Khaliq Assistant Professor, Department of Social and Allied Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Farzana Iqbal Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Studies, The Govt Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Rasheed Ahmad Visiting Lecturer, Department of English Literature, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
The study was performed to see the effect of Teachers' Professional Development on the Teacher's Instructional Practices in Special Education. The aims of this research include exploring the use of special education teacher instructional practices in schools and studying the influence of professional development on instructional practices of teachers. The study was quantitative in nature and used a self-developed survey for the collection of data from respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. The result indicates that instructional practices differ on the basis of gender; however, qualification has no influence on instructional practices. Moreover, the distance (division)of respondents, duration of training did not affect the professional development of respondents. Moreover, professional development had a direct relationship with the instructional practices in special education.
1-Fariha Gul Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Amna Jahangir MPhil Scholar, Department of Special Needs Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Saleem MPhil Scholar, Department of Special Needs Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Society is a combination of the upper and the lower class:The upper class or Bourgeoisie is busy in their world endeavors and their quest for 'more and more; whereas, in contrast, the lower class or proletariat strives for a proper one-time meal. Over time, this disparity between the classes gets horrible. The drastic consequences of this disparity become observable in society in hatred and injustice. Different authors of colonial India have jotted down social imbalances of the subcontinent, including Zakia Mashhadi. Her short story, 'The Cover Faces',extracted from an English translated collection 'In Search of Butterflies' by Saeed Naqvi (2017), was taken for qualitative textual analysis under Lois Tyson's (2006) 'Theory of Class Distinction'. Zakia Mashhadi showed the two parallel classes in society, where Bourgeoisie have almost everything;however, in the same society, Bourgeoisie even deprived the proletariat of the fundamental rights and necessities of life
1-Fatima Yousuf Research Scholar, Faculty of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan2-Naveed Ahmad Taseer MPhil English, Department of English, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan3-Rukhshanda Mushtaq Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Wah, Wah Cantonment, Punjab, Pakistan
The current comparative mixed-method study attempts to analyses two features of stance markers-attitude markers and self-mention—in the editorials of Pakistani male and female columnists to capture the similarities and differences in their writing styles called stylometry. Hyland’s (2005) interaction model, comprising attitude markers and self-mention, was applied on the corpus consisting of 30 editorials, 15of which were from each gender: male and female. Editorials from two newspapers—The Dawn and The News—were analyzed with the help of Ant Conc. Findings indicated that attitude markers were less significant in both genders’ writings, confirming unanimity among the stylometry of both genders. Self-mentions were present with a higher proportion in male editorials than female editorials, revealing the difference.
1-Sikandar Ali khan Research Scholar, Faculty of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Owais Ahmad Graduate, Faculty of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Zawar Hussain Graduate, International Islamic University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.
A digital game-based learning approach is a sophisticated method in which the student is dynamically involved in the learning. The traditional or old learning technique is fully replaced by this learning strategy. Several research studies have demonstrated that employing a game-based strategy boosts learning. The purpose of the current review study was to employ descriptive and statistical approaches to compare the learning outcomes of pupils who used a digital game-based learning approach to those who used traditional learning strategies. A total of 26 papers published between 2012 and 2021 were chosen based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The previous research' literature evaluation revealed that the digital game-based learning method has proved to be every operative learning technique in a number of disciplines and learning situations. Learners are extremely engaged in the learning process while using a digital game-based learning technique
1-Ghulam Mujtaba Yasir Assistant Professor of English, Government Associate College for Boys, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan2-Ajaz Shaheen Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Lasbela University of Water, Agriculture and Marine Sciences, Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan3-Muhammad Hafeez M.Phil Scholar, Department of Education, Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
This research explored the relationship of children's temperament dimensions with perceived parenting style during middle childhood. It was quantitative research based on correlational design. The sample comprised of 7 to 11 years old children attending mainstream school and their parents selected through convenient sampling from different schools of Lahore. Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire and Parental Perception Questionnaire was used for data collection. The results indicated that authoritative parenting style shared a significant positive relationship with positive temperamental traits like surgency and effortful control), whereas negative affectivity temperamental dimension had a significant positive association with permissive and authoritarian parenting styles. Significant gender differences were witnessed in perceived parenting styles and temperamental dimensions. Findings were discussed in the context of previous research studies.
1-Abia Nazim Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Sumbal Riaz Malik Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Ivan Suneel Associate Professor, Vice-Rector Intermediate Section, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University) Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The study investigates the predicated thematic structures in the English text and its Urdu translation. The first objective is to define the variations in the Urdu translation of English predicated thematic structures. The second objective is to define how the variations in Urdu translation affect the thematic progression. The data has been collected from the English novel Things Fall Apart by Achebe (1958) and its Urdu translation Bikharti Duniya by Ullah (1991). The UAM Corpus Tool has been used to annotate the data and to find predicated thematic structures and their thematic progression.The findings show that the Urdu translation of English predicated themes is ambiguous and misleading. The English predicated themes have been translated as Urdu unmarked and marked ideational themes. Such unmotivated displacement of themes affects thematic progression. There occur some variations in the thematic progression of translated Urdu themes.
1-Humaira Yaqub PhD Candidate, Government College University Faisalabad and Lecturer, GIFT University Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Ansa Ahsan Lecturer, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan3-Mubashir Iqbal Lecturer, University of Gujrat, Narrowal, Punjab, Pakistan.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training on the physical fitness of club cricketers.Data were obtained from the experimental group (n = 15) and control group(n = 15). The selected variables were speed, agility, flexibility, endurance,and standing broad jump. An eight-week exercise program was planned for the experimental group, and the control group usually continued routine exercise. Data were collected before the start and after the training program.Uni variate analysis worked to determine the effect of training on the physical fitness measures. Results showed that the experimental group was significantly better in post-analysis in standing broad jump, endurance,agility, and flexibility. On the other hand, the control group was found uniform in the physical fitness test before and after data analysis. It was concluded that the physical fitness of club cricketers is associated with strength training.
1-Rana Muhammad Faisal Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Zia ul Haq Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. 3-Muhammad Numan Department of Physical Education, Government Post Graduate College for Men, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and other international legal instruments provide freedom of religion to individuals and communities globally. Therefore, all the nations of the world agree to allow and respect the relevant religious practices for the followers of any particular religion. By virtue of its teachings and values,Islam was found as a religion of peace and harmony. But unfortunately, since the last two decades, especially after 9/11, the sentiments of Islamophobia have been rising. The existing literature shows the emerging Islamophobia is causing victimization of Muslims all over the world and particularly in the west, which is escalating with the passage of time. This victimization has created feelings of hatred among the various communities and has an impact on global peace. This study analyses the factors that lead to Islamophobia and its implication on the harmonious co-existence of societies.
1-Unsa Jamshed Assistant Professor, Department of History And Pakistan Studies, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Pakistan.2-Amar Jahangir PhD Scholar, Department of History and Pakistan Studies, International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Syed Mudasser Fida Gerdazi Assistant Professor, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan
In a parliamentary democracy, the opposition has a significant role in the parliament. This research article analyzes the role of opposition benches in finance bills presented on the floor of the National Assembly in the PML-N government from 2013-2018. It thoroughly investigates the debates of the members of the opposition benches made on all the budget bills in the period 2013-18. Moreover, the suggestions and amendments put forward by the members of the opposition parties are also critically analyzed.This study has carried out under a qualitative research design. The descriptive-analytical method is adopted for the analysis of data. This research shows that the opposition benches had actively participated in the budget bills through debate and cut motions. It had also criticized those policies of the government which are against the welfare of the common people, particularly the imposition of new taxes. It further finds that the opposition parties did the contrary when they came in power.
1-Muhammad Adil Visiting Assistant Professor, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Manzoor Khan Afridi Associate Professor, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Work-life balance has an impact on individual performance,and work life balance is affected by a number of factors.Performance is affected by a number of factors which are divided into physical and psychological domains. Physical domains as workplace facilities,salary, or other tangible benefits to employees are often taken care of in organizations. However, the psychological aspect, which includes the family/social life of the employee, are intangible in most of organizations.Occupational stress is hampering the work-life balance of employees, as is evident in the literature; however, its exact dimensions on public sector employees in Pakistan are yet not researched. For this purpose, Police organizations will be studied to know the impact of work-life balance on the performance of police in Baluchistan with a moderating effect of occupational stress.
1-Muhammad Rizwan Anjum PhD Scholar, Balochistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Sciences, (BUITEMS) Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.2-Hadi Hassan Khan Associate Professor of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences (BUITEMS) Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.3-Nagina Gul Assistant Professor of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences (BUITEMS) Quetta, Balochistan. Pakistan.
The aim of the current study was to identify different competencies developed through Continuous Professional Development (CPD) and to evaluate the effectiveness of mentoring in developing different competencies among primary teachers. It was a descriptive and quantitative study in nature. Primary school teachers (PSTs)from the district of Lahore were the population of the study. The sample was selected randomly from 10Percent of the total population (N = 786). For the data collection, a 5-point Likert-type questionnaire was developed by the searcher. To answer the research questions, data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 with mean SD, t-test, and ANOVA. The identified professional competencies through the CPD program were classroom management, micro-teaching, reinforcement, planning and strategies, learning environment,human growth and development, assessment, communication skills, asking questions, and lesson planning. Mentoring is recommended to be done at the elementary and secondary levels to develop competencies
1-Muhammad Abbas PhD Scholar, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Afshan Jabeen Assistant Professor, Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, University of Haripur, KP, Pakistan.3-Saba Tariq MPhil Graduate (Physics), University of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.