Preference is given to the recently published scholarship in prominent journals and publishers. Secondary sources of data related to educational exchanges and its role in diplomacy have been extensively studied. It was observed that whether it's a small country or a major player in the international politics, educational exchanges and bursaries play a vital role in promoting its soft image in addition to culture and history to the foreign audience. Some of the famous providers of scholarships to international students include the USA, UK and China. While recent studies show that China is rising to be the top provider of educational scholarships and the Chinese universities are rapidly getting top positions in the world ranking of universities. Through such initiatives, China's policies are getting acceptance to a greater extent in foreign countries. This study is of high importance to complementary research.
1-Muhammad Mussa Khan PhD Scholar, Department of Media and International Culture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China2-Riaz Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. 3-Lloyd W. Fernald Professor, Department of Management, University of Central Florida & Dean of Graduate Studies, Orlando University, Orlando, Florida, USA.
The research paper investigates the socio-cultural constraints faced by women entrepreneurs during startup and expansion of their entrepreneurial ventures in Ahmedpur East of District Bahawalpur through documenting their lived experiences. The research is primarily a multi-sited ethnography and utilizes qualitative research methods such as in-depth semi-structured interviews and focused group discussions on collecting primary data from a selective sample of 25 entrepreneurs ascertained through sampling technique. The study highlights gender-specific socio-cultural challenges such as social perceptions and biases, work-life balance, patronage of male family members, restricted mobility owing to Purdah and low recognition and payment of women's work etc. as prime reasons that hinder not only women participation as entrepreneurs but also inhibits their engagements and choices in entrepreneurship. Socio-cultural factors not only systematically impact women's social interactions and decision-making but transform into multiple other challenges that women fight and struggle with while making their space as entrepreneurs.
1-Mehreen Raza M. Phil Scholar, Department of Anthropology, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Inam Ullah Leghari Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact of motivation on teachers and students to use L1 in the L2 classroom. To find out an obvious understanding of this subject matter, the study focused on the 156 teachers and the 577 students who were teaching and learning English at graduation level in different public sector colleges and universities of the Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Two questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were analyzed through SPSS (statistical package for social sciences). Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, Analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-Test and Cronbach's alpha. The results of the study indicated that the learners and the teachers showed highly positive perceptions regarding the use of L1 in the L2 classroom. The majority of the respondents preferred using L1 in certain situations for specific reasons such as while learning about grammar and its usage in the L2 classroom, discussing course policies, attendance, and other administrative information, explaining some difficult concepts, to give directions about exams and in introducing the aim of the lesson, to discuss tests, quizzes, and other assignments appropriately at BS level
1-Muhammad Ahsan Lecturer, Department of English, Ghazi University Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Zahoor Hussain Lecturer, Department of English, Bahaudin Zakariya University, Layya Campus, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Gulfraz Abbasi Associate Professor, Department of English, Government College Murree, Punjab, Pakistan.
The present study is explanatory research that adopted a cross-sectional survey design to achieve the objectives of the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to obtain data from the teachers. The data were collected from n=10 public and general private universities of Sindh. The data were analyzed using SPSS v.22 and AMOS v.22. The findings revealed that firstly, a delegation of authority has a significant impact on job satisfaction because (?= 0.928, and p value=0.000). Secondly, a delegation of authority has a significant impact on job performance because (?= 1.047, and p value=0.000). Thirdly, job satisfaction has a significant impact on organizational growth because (?=0.407, and p value=0.000). Fourthly, job performance has a significant impact on organizational growth because (?=0.141, and p value=0.000). Therefore, this study recommends that the practice of delegation of authority should be adopted in public and private universities.
1-Syed Gul Muhammad Shah PhD Scholar, Iqra University Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.2-Anjum Bano Kazmi Professor, Department of Speech and Language, Iqra University Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
21st-century leaders need strong leadership skills to effectively lead schools. They must use and implement 21st-century skills for long term change. The study aimed to identify the practices of secondary school leaders of Rawalpindi city about [recommended] 21st century 4 Cs leadership skills (Competence, Character, Compassion & Courage) during the pandemic of Covid-19. This was exploratory research following the quantitative research approach. One hundred and nine school leaders were selected through a simple random sampling technique to complete an adapted survey questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing and reporting the findings. Quantitative data analysis indicates that school leaders are using 21st-century leadership skills during Covid-19, but the level of use is dissimilar to the recommended 21st century 4 Cs leadership skills. It was identified that school leaders use relationship (mean= 4.21), Accountability (mean= 4.45), and Self-Belief (mean= 4.37) skills more than other sub-skills in their leadership practices. The findings recommend that policymakers and professional development organizations should plan workshops on these recommended leadership skills for school leaders so they can perform well under situations like Covid-19.
1-Mehr Bakht Visiting Faculty, Department of Education, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Salma Nazar Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Gerardo L Blanco Academic Director, Center for International Higher Education. Boston College, USA.
Metadiscourse markers play an important role in academic, media, and political discourse. Political leaders use discourse markers to express their ideas and thoughts persuasively and compellingly. The paper identifies the interactive meta-discourse markers in Benazir Bhutto's speech and explains how the use of meta-discourse markers, such as boosters and hedges, can strengthen or weaken the impact of political discourse. The data used for compiling the corpus consists of thirteen randomly selected speeches by Benazir Bhutto delivered between 1989 and 1997 and explained using Hyland's (1996) concept of metadiscourse. The findings show that hedges have been used more frequently than boosters. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the interactional meta-discourse markers used by politicians to shape their messages to enhance the impact of their political narratives. It also helps to understand how rhetorical devices are used by speakers to express doubts or certainty in their speeches.
1-Arshad Ali Assistant Professor, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Athar Rashid Assistant Professor, Department of Governance & Public Policy, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Shahid Abbas Lecturer, Department of English, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.
The aim of present study was to explore existence of long-run association between consumption, income and investment implied by Balanced Growth proposition of Neo-classical-growth-model of the Solow and Swan (1956). Using quarterly data on consumption, income and investment from 1995q1 through 2018q4. The study have tested the balanced growth hypothesis for the Denmark. Using standard Vector-Auto-Regression technique of Johansen (1988) and Johansen and Juselius (1990) analysed the output shocks to both consumption and investment. Although, there exists cointegration implying long run relationship, the results are not consistent with the balanced-growth-hypothesis (BGH) with given data sample for Denmark.
1-Ghulam Yahya Khan Assistant Professor, Kashmir Institute of Economics, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Masood Anwar PhD Scholar, Kashmir Institute of Economics, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan. 3-Aftab Anwar Assistant Professor, University of Education Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
'With Justin Williams' 'spatial justice' and Pierre Bordieu's 'role of gender', this article explores how gender socialization is the outcome of spatial correspondences and how the biological concerns regarding gender, specifically in third world countries like Pakistan, are the catalysts in this process of gender socialization. In this regard, this article delimits Jamil Ahmad's The Wandering Falcon to exhibit the cultural interpellation concerning gender disparity in establishing spatial justice. Space contributes to the socio-political and cultural consciousness that lets the gender know his/her location in a given social boundary. This gendered location is significant concerning a privileged stature of patriarchal/matriarchal mindset and performances. On the other hand, the phenomenon of spatial justice literalizes and materializes these mindsets and performances. This article examines the shift from individual consciousness to a social identity hence locates the impact of space in allocating a role to the gender.
1-Amna Ijaz Butt Visiting Lecturer, Department of English, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Kanza Umer Khan Lecturer, Department of English, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Nafees Parvez MPhil, Department of English, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
With Dirk C. Van Raemdonck's theory of 'tridimensional game of chess in South Asia', this study explores how the Great Game of chess has encompassed the board of Afghanistan into the strategic and economical range of global as well as local nations. In this regard, this study delimits Zia Haider Rahman's 'In the Light of What We Know' to examine the role of great (US, India), little (Pakistan, Saudi Arabia), and local (ISI, UNAMA, AfDARI, militants, etc.) players respectively. The three-level players struggle to win their politicoeconomic and geostrategic motives. The delimited novel exposes that the little and local players are playing the game of proxy to fetch their own designs. This study concludes that great global players/forces ensnare little and local players and misuse them as white and/or black pieces respectively to win their gains.
1-Atta -ul- Mustafa PhD Scholar, Department of English, Govt. College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Ali Usman Saleem Assistant Professor, Department of English, Govt. College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Qasim Shafiq PhD Scholar, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, Pakistan.
This article is an endeavor to provide an insight into Native American novelist Louise Erdrich's use of the magical-realist technique in an attempt to harmonize the mythic and modern conceptions of reality represented by the Native American and Euro American subjects, respectively. The article demonstrates that in an attempt to seek a way possible to intertwine the two cultures, to wed the Native and the European ideologies of the world into accommodative space and to strike out the all-pervasive differences between the two people inhabiting the same land, Erdrich delves into the structuring principles of each culture's conceptualizing and internalizing the reality and the faith in it, and presents them as simultaneous albeit contrary versions of the same events, suggesting the possibility of simultaneous and harmonious co-existence of the two views, each retaining its essential outlook and yet respecting and accommodating the other. Employing Bower and Paula Gunn Allen's theoretical postulations of magical realism as a particular discourse embedded in the mythic and cultural beliefs of the Native American subjects, the article explores the mythic and modern formulations of female identity in Native American magical-realist fiction Tracks.
1-Mumtaz Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of English, Government Guru Nanak Postgraduate College, Nankana Sahib, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Asma Haseeb Qazi Assistant Professor, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Sahar Javaid Lecturer, Department of English, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Societies shape people in and outwards look with different connotations such as gender, attitude and behavior. Humans are the product of society, and each society is different in terms of the environment created by the dwellers. There are societal taboos that are common and similar in most societies of the world, but such cultural affinities are due to the geographical association and the impact of globalization. Common norm, which is practiced in one society is not acceptable in other society, whether it is within a country or in another country. For example, house chores and taking responsibility for the care of the husband is appreciated in Libya, but the same practice is not considered a stereotype in turkey. Women craze for ornaments in South Africa, similar to the customs in Libya and turkey. The discourse of the participants reveals a cultural perception that varies from person to person and culture to culture. Thoughts and behavior are made by society, and the same thoughts are changed with a wave of time.
1-Samiullah Khan Lasbela University of Agriculture Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan.2-Sanam Wagma Khattak Lecturer, University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Sarfaraz Ahmed Shaikh Director, Indus Center for Sustainable Development, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is the basic right of every human being which directly influence health and social outcomes. Without adopting a project to its cultural settings, the project has very little or no chance for success or to be sustainable. The objective of the present study was to examine the socio-cultural barriers towards safe water, sanitation and hygiene practices in southern Punjab, Pakistan. It was a mixed method of research comprising qualitative and quantitative design. The qualitative data was collected through FGDs, and quantitative data was collected through an interview schedule. It was found that Cultural constraints like satisfaction and reliability towards traditional and myth-based norms are hampering the water, sanitation and hygiene practices. It is necessary to start comprehensive programs of WASH sector development with a special focus on social mobilization for the transformation of social norms along with resource allocation to improve WASH conditions/practices.
1-Hasan Ghaffoor PhD Scholar, Department of Sociology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Farooq Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. 3-Sadaf Mahmood Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The research essay aims to understand investor's ability to forecast having the perception of status quo and monetary loss-aversion in the situation of amygdala damages and asymmetry during decisions regarding stock's investment and use of several techniques to make efficient investment decisions based on optimal forecasting. The objectives of this study are to inquire about the irrationalities in investors at the time of stock's investment, having status quo and monetary loss-averse bias of investors at the time of amygdala damages and asymmetry and find-out the ways to deal with these situations. A qualitative research style was used for data collection for the subject study. Partially-organized discussions were arranged to get information in detail. A sample of 15 experienced stock marketers and brokers and 35 investors from the Pakistan stock exchange were selected for this study. This inquiry found the definite type of edgy and biased investor's attitude in the market and also found their solutions. This study perceptibly peaks the ways to deal with stress and biasness through optimal forecasting techniques and some other suggestions.
1-Muhammad Awais Assistant Professor, Department of Economics & Finance, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Sadaf Kashif Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Iqra University Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Asif Raza Head of Business Operations, DPL (Pvt) Ltd. Islamabad, Pakistan
This Qualitative in-depth study aimed to explore whether women are treated as a weapon of war in conflict zones. Women are exploited, and their feminity is used against them as a weapon, and Indian Army troops deployed in Indian occupied Kashmir are leaving no stone unturned to harm and disgrace the Kashmiri Community by raping and harassing their women. Women living in Indian Occupied Jammu and Kashmir are the main consideration. 11 in-depth interviews were conducted with the native Kashmiris living in Indian held Jammu and Kashmir. Ethno National Conflict theory was employed to further understand the entire scenario. Findings of the research study suggest that Kashmiris are suffering under the tranny and illegal oppression of the Indian army and the brutal policies. Women are indeed treated and ill-treated as a weapon of war in conflict zones like Kashmir, and ethnic cleansing has been a major goal of the India army in Indian held Kashmir.
1-Noor Ul Ain Nasir Lecturer, School of Media and Communication Studies, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Haseeb ur Rehman Warrich Associate Professor, Department of Arts and Media, Foundation University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Noshaba Nargis Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication, GC University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The present paper is the discursive interpretation of dominance and barbarity in Bronte's Wuthering Heights. The researcher's main aim of the study is to explore the issues under consideration through Critical Discourse analysis (CDA). It is the best way to address power relations and dominance. Fairclough's (1989) CDA approach is the basic tool for the analysis of any kind of discourse/text, i.e., spoken or written. CDA is suitable for the analysis of texts which deals with power relations, hegemony and dominance, as well as violence. The research examines the relationship between cognitive, textual as well as Socio-cultural levels of discourse. Fairclough's (1989) framework of CDA has been used in the current research study so as to maintain diverse methods for analyzing ideological processes and power relations in the text. Research on Heathcliff and other characters is also recommended from the perspective of feminism, stylistic or marxism
1-Abdul Karim Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English & Applied Linguistics, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KP, Pakistan.2-Ihsan Ullah Khan Assistant Professor, Department of English & Applied Linguistics, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KP, Pakistan.3-Abdus Samad Assistant Professor, Department of English, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.
The present study, based on Van Dijk (2005) ideological square model, aims to show how the two countries, i.e., Pakistan and India, represent each other through their newspaper's discourse. Using Van Dijk's (2005) framework (positive self-presentation, negative other-presentation) for discourse analysis, this study examines linguistic features in fifty editorials of three Pakistani and three Indian English newspapers. The aforementioned model adopted from Politics, Ideology and Discourse is used to detect discursive structures within editorials and to discover the hidden ideologies. Besides, the researchers have used different discursive strategies such as actor description, euphemism, evidentiality etc., for microanalysis. Moreover, the macro analysis has been done by using the macro strategies, i.e., positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation. The study revealed that Pakistani editorials used micro strategies more than that Indians. The study also revealed that Pakistani editorials relied mostly on positive self-presentation, while Indian editorials focused on negative other-presentation.
1-Arif Khan MPhil Scholar, Department of English, Hazara University Mansehra, KP, Pakistan. 2-Ghani Rahman Assistant Professor, Department of English, Hazara University Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.3-Sajid Iqbal Lecturer, Department of English, University of Malakand, Malakand, KP, Pakistan.
This study inspected the association of company performance with the choice of IPO of the firm's registered on the Pakistan Stock Exchange. In particular, two dimensions of performance, Return on Sales and Return on Asset as operating and Tobbin Q as Market performance as dependent variables, Bank debts, Capital Expenditure, Ownership Concentration, Sales Growth and Firm Size as independent variables along with the age of the firm as control variable have been used. Sample of 40 Pakistani IPOstaken for the period of 2005-2016. OLS inferences confirmed that the performance of both pre-IPO and Post-IPO show an influential association with the independent variables. This study provided a path to smaller firms that are in the process to go public. Whereas glimpses for the investors also provided who want to add profitable securities to their portfolio bucket.
1-Ihtesham Khan Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Sikandar Shah MS (Management Sciences), Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Wisal Ahmad Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
The incompatible reservations have adversely affected the uniform application of the CEDAW Convention. A significant number of incompatible reservations have been formulated by the Muslim states. Such reservations have undermined the CEDAW provisions and conceivably doubt the state's accountability for its obligations under the Convention. The research comprises of two parts; first, it examines the reservations of the Muslim states in the context of their obligations under the Convention. Second, it adopts an analytical approach to analyze women rights in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Iran (as a non-state party). Our findings reveal that despite the incompatible reservations, the Muslim states that have ratified the CEDAW Convention have shown significant improvement in women rights as compared to the states that are not members of the Convention. It suggests that Muslim states should revisit the scope of their reservations and adopt a rational approach towards women rights and fulfilling the obligations under the CEDAW Convention.
1-Zaheer Iqbal Cheema Assistant Professor, University Law College, New Campus, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Zarfishan Qaiser Assistant Professor, University Law College, New Campus, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Khushbakht Qaiser Assistant Professor, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Software reusability encourages developers to heavily rely on a variety of third-party libraries and packages, resulting in dependent software products. Often ignored by developers due to the risk of breakage but dependent software have to adopt security and performance updates in their external dependencies. Existing work advocates a shift towards Automatic updation of dependent software code to implement update dependencies. Emerging automatic dependency management tools notify the availability of new updates, detect their impacts on dependent software and identify potential breakages or other vulnerabilities. However, support for automatic source code refactoring to fix potential breaking changes (to the best of my current knowledge) is missing from these tools. This paper presents a prototyping tool, DepRefactor, that assist in the programmed refactoring of software code caused by automatic updating of their dependencies. To measure the accuracy and effectiveness of DepRefactor, we test it on various students project developed in C#.
1-Naveed Jhamat Assistant Professor, Department of Information Technology, University of the Punjab, Gujranwala Campus, Lahore, Pakistan2-Zeeshan Arshad Lecturer, Department of Information Technology, University of the Punjab, Gujranwala Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.3-Kashif Riaz Department of Computer Science, Government Post Graduate College Satellite Town, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.
Intending to identify that how meaning in the source text has been reproduced in the translated text, the study attempts to investigate deforming tendencies used in the selected poems of Abdul Ghani Khan translated from Pashto into English by Imtiaz Ahmed Sahibzada. Imtiaz Sahibzada has translated 141 poems from the mammoth corpus of Abdul Ghani Khan's Poetry into English and named it The Pilgrim of a Beauty. Using judgmental sampling, ten poems were selected and were analysed in the light of Antoine Berman's (1965) Text Deformation System which includes twelve deforming tendencies. While analysing the translated text in comparison with the source text, deformation in terms of semantics and the syntactic structure was found. Abdul Ghani Khan's poetry translation is considerably deformed, and the translator has little maintained the composition, musicality, and structure of the source text because of different reasons. He has deformed the beauty of the source text poems at the cost of the message due to the use of various deforming tendencies.
1-Raees Ahmad MPhil Scholar, Deaprtment of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Liaqat Iqbal Assistant Professor, Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Irfan Ullah Assistant Professor, Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
The present qualitative study aimed in-depth exploration of dyadic coping among couples dealing with chronic illness. There were 12 couples (six females and six males) with chronic illness and their healthy partners were interviewed. The in-depth interviews were conducted through interview guide based on Systematic Transactional Model (STM) (Bodenmann, 1995) and lived experiences of participants. The results were analyzed by using (Braun & Clarke, 2006) method of thematic analysis. The results revealed that female diagnosed partners showed less supportive dyadic coping to deal with physical and emotional burden of their chronic illnesses as compared to chronically ill male partners. However, the economic hardships is equally stressful for both members of the couples resulted in negative dyadic coping. The therapeutic assistance should be given to improve the dyadic coping among couples to deal with burden of chronic illness and live with better quality of life.
1-Misbah Arshad PhD Scholar, Department of Psychology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Bushra Bibi Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.
Recent studies, however, have shown that MT serves a symbolic tool and can be way more effective in L2 learning than the exclusive use of TL. While many studies have examined the extent and functions of MT, only a few have explored the sociocognitive functions using Vygotsky's sociocultural (SCT) framework. The present study, therefore, adopted SCT to examine the amount and sociocognitive functions of MT. Classroom observations and stimulated recalls interviews were used to collect data from MBA students (n=6). Results showed that, learners MT use made up only 14% of the total amount of speech in L2 classroom. Most importantly, MT performed important functions, such as scaffolding, intersubjectivity and cognitive regulation. MT facilitated vocabulary learning in L2 through scaffolded help; created intersubjectivity by increasing motivation, reducing anxiety, and helped internalize L2 through cognitive self-regulation. A number of implications for classroom pedagogy and language policy have also been discussed.
1-Hassan Syed Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Sukkur IBA University, Airport Road, Sukkur, Singh, Pakistan. 2-Farhan Bhutto Lecturer, Department of English, Sukkur IBA University, Airport Road, Sukkur, Singh, Pakistan.3-Tanweer Syed Lecturer, Department of Education, Sukkur IBA University, Airport Road, Sukkur, Singh, Pakistan.
The main aim of this study was to see the perceptions of female teachers of secondary schools about the relationship between class size and students learning outcomes. Variable Learning outcome (LO) was selected for comparing teaching in overcrowded classes versus small-sized classrooms. Primary data were collected from the same teachers who had the experience of teaching both overcrowded classes and small-sized classes. For overcrowded classes, it was hypothesized that teachers could very effectively achieve the targeted learning outcomes in small classes, whereas it is quite challenging for the overcrowded class teachers to achieve the targets. Reliability tests were carried out to check the consistency of the answers from respondents. The test Cronbach's alphas yielded acceptable to very good range. Learning outcomes (LOO) 4.04, Learning outcomes (LOS) 4.72. These results were further checked and reinforced through the use of One-sample t-tests. The majority of the same teachers, on the basis of the same statistical tests, have expressed that smallsized classrooms are relatively more appropriate for teaching.
1-Samreen Mehmood Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Saira Shereen M.Phil Scholar, Department of Education, City University Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Madeeha Murad Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Chitral. Chitral, KP, Pakistan.
Technical Vocational Education and Training Program, also known as TVET, is broadly recognized as one of the most prominent disciplines in the education system. Technical education, as included in Pakistan's national education policy, is concerned with the quality technological human capital leading to a national pool of skilled and self-reliant artisans, technicians and technologists in the fields of vocational and technical education. The descriptive research design was used, and a total of 625 students and 137 TVET institutes of Balochistan participated in the study. The instrument for data collection was an adopted, and amended questionnaire based on study constructs, and data were collected by the researchers. Opportunities lie in the emerging demand for skills in CPEC projects, global markets of Europe, the Middle East and neighboring Gulf states for conventional work and profits, national skills requirements, human capital optimization through workforce skills development, provincial incorporation of skills in major projects.
1-Shoaib Younis MS Scholar, Institute of Management Sciences, University of Balochistan Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.2-Saubia Ramzan Dean, Faculty of Management Sciences Business and IT, University of Balochistan Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.3-Nagina Gul Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Faculty of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakist
The paper deals with the architecture and function of watermills in Swat valley. Watermill is a seldom-used term; however, it has played a significant role in the socio-cultural and economic lives of people in the past. This research work explores the case study of water mills in the Swat region. It examined in detail its processing and operation. The watermill was not only an instrument used for grinding purposes but also determined the mode of production, class system and social values of people. Modern technology has though changed people's behaviors and social formations up to a large extent, but it couldn't erase people's memories and history. A qualitative method has been used for conducting this research work. An ethnic-archaeological method was focused on recording the history of this tremendous ancient technology which contributed widely to the socio-cultural context of people.
1-Faisal Khan Visiting lecturer, University of Swat, Mingora, KP, Pakistan. 2-Junaid Babar Lecturer, University of the Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.3-Zahir Hussain MPhil, Quaid Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.
The study focused on the most critical issues like work overload and the fear of negative evaluation, and here we measured the impact of work overload and the fear of negative evaluation in addition resultantly occur the role of frustration on employees' performance in Commercial Banks of Islamabad, Pakistan. An online and by hand floated questionnaires were distributed to the employees to obtain feedback. The target population for this study were Banks' managerial and administrative employees. Based on the convenience sampling design, 240 employees from 35 banks were approached. 199 completely filled questionnaires were received out of 240 employees. The collected data was analyzed using Smart Partial Least Squares (PLS) Path Modelling Method and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 for analysis and the reliability test, for all items of each scale and satisfactory results were obtained. Results show that work overloads negatively influence employee performance. Similarly, fear of negative evaluation also creates an adverse impact on performance.
1-Sardar Ali Department of Leadership and Management Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman Associate Professor, Department of Leadership and Management Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
The study explored the developed social skills between male and female students at the elementary level. A total of 550 Students were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling in the district of Lahore. Explored social skills included accepting criticism, showing respect, solving problems, accepting rights & responsibilities and tolerance of individual differences. A scale consisting of sixty-nine items was developed and standardized through factor analysis. The instrument was checked and ensured for reliability measures using Cronbach's Alpha (r = .75, p < .05). Five factors were identified through exploratory factor analysis using the principal component matrix measuring students' level of social skills at the elementary level. Results of the study showed statistically significant difference based on the gender of the student for the subscale "accepting criticism", revealing male students being more developed in social skill compared to their female counterparts, whereas female students were found more mature for the social skill requiring tolerance of individual differences as compared to male students. The study has implications for future researchers and school authorities.
1-Tallat Rashid University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Kiran Shehzadi University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Farzana Yousaf University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Literature has served as one of the most convincing tools for developing emancipatory thinking among Americans, particularly the colored people in the antebellum period. The current research paper is an attempt to study and explore how emancipatory thinking was developed through literature which is, generally considered to be more fictional than factual. Through the close reading of the selected narratives written during the period, the researcher has attempted to unearth various aspects and relate them with the factual accounts of the time in order to investigate their closer relationship with each other. This required a theoretical framework that would enable us to juxtapose the literary and non-literary texts to have an actual picture of the situation; therefore, the non-literary journalistic writings during that period have been studied parallel to the literary narratives. The findings and discussion developed in this study also suggest that further studies may also be conducted in order to dispel the misconception ascribed to narratives of the antebellum period that narratives are imaginary scattered accounts of the authors which are much exaggerated than to have elements of realism.
1-Amir Jamil Ph.D Scholar, Area Study Centre, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad/ Lecturer Department of English, Hafiz Hayyat Campus, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Bahramand Shah Assistant Professor, Area Study Centre, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
English is the certified language of Pakistan and intermediate of teaching in private schools. Learning an FL might be frustrating and challenging for some young learners. Stories in English as literature are an effective technique to teach young learners. This paper attempts to explore if reading stories in English as part of literature is a gendered activity with differences of interest by boys and girls. The study used a Reading Attitude Survey modified from Downing Object Activity Opinion and the Finnish questionnaire. The findings depict that stories in the schoolbooks are enthusiastic and are suitable according to learners' curiosity and standard. Results further specified that the general mainstream of students understands reading as an action that is more appropriate for girls, thus supportive of the study's hypothesis. The results also suggested that the gender-based insights strengthen with age for both boys and girls.
1-Zainab Akram Assistant Professor, Department of English, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women's University, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.2-Sadia Suleman Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women's University, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.3-Maroof Bin Rauf Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Political participation and unity of nation on political affairs in the country to increase the participation of youth in political affairs their political development is a basic requirement. Pakistan studies support creating political awareness among the youth of the nation. This research study investigated that how the 10th grade 'Pakistan to study textbook' creates a political sense among the youths. This study was conducted through content analysis of 10th-grade textbooks, and the students' political development level was also measured through a survey questionnaire focused on the questions related to political development elements. The sample for content analysis was 10th grade Pakistan studies textbook, and for the survey was 120 students of 10th grades enrolled in secondary schools of Quetta city. Major findings high lights that political development was not supported by the Pakistan studies textbook.
1-Alia Ayub Associate Professor, Department of Education, SBKWU, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. 2-Khadija Karim Associate Professor, Department of Education, SBKWU, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. 3-Shabana Akhtar Assistant Professor, Department of Pakistan Studies, SBKWU, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.
The Pak-U.S. relations have been through many ups and downs throughout the history of Pakistan. For most of the time during the cold war, relations remained either warm or normal except for some short periods. The ties went down the slope after the cold war and towards the onset of the twenty-first century. In addition to some drastic shifts in the regional and global political scenario, the incident of 9/11 proved a watershed for Pak-U.S. ties as well. Pakistan's decision to stand with America and her allies provided an opportunity for both the states to improve bilateral ties. Key challenges include, but not limited to, issues of trust and coordination, the problems of strategic harmony and divergence of interests and varied policies about arms and nuclear proliferation. Pak-U.S. relations have also been affected by their respective relations with other states. From Pakistan's perspective, it is essential not only to identify points of convergence and divergence with the United States but also to explore policy options to meet such challenges.
1-Sultan Mubariz Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science & IR, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Saiqa Hanif Associate Lecturer, Department of Political Science & IR, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Shumaila Rafique Associate Lecturer, Department of Political Science & IR, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.
How are the systemic constraints transformed through the transmission belt of leader's idiosyncrasies and domestic pressures in order to result in the outcome, which is the pursuance or non-pursuance of regime change policy by the United States? This study analyses the foreign policy decision making of President Bush vis-a-vis Iraq, President Obama vis-a-vis Libya, and President Trump vis-a-vis Iran. It raises the following questions: What is the US policy of regime change, and why and how has it pursued this policy? Why were the US policies different in Iraq, Libya, and Iran, and what have been the implications of these policies upon the region as a whole? While using neoclassical realism as the theoretical paradigm and using qualitative content analysis, this study hypothesizes that the interplay of systemic and domestic level variables results in the foreign policy outcomes in the form of action or inaction towards a particular issue.
1-Muhammad Nadeem Mirza Faculty Member, School of Politics and International Relations, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Ayesha Nayab MPhil Graduate, School of Politics and International Relations, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.
The collective responsibilities and rights of female students are ignored in the academic domain of Sindh, Pakistan. The third world countries are a mirror image of it and highlight their declining condition in the educational perspectives of female education. The twelve Psychosocial barriers are highlighted in this study. They are analyzed to know about their extent in female students in one of the Public sector universities of Sindh, Pakistan. The quantitative design was adopted, and a questionnaire was used as the instrument to measure percentages and frequencies. A five-point Likert Scale was selected for the process of data collection measurement from thirty female participants of the English department. The thirty female students represented four academic stages in a co-academic setting. After the analysis of data through SPSS software, the results affirmed that female students do face problems to pursue their higher education in the shape of psychological fears, uncomfortable situations, adoption of different rough attitudes against her existence in academics, dominancy of the male colleague in academic and societal boundaries, cultural and parental disparities in mind sets that ultimately results to the unawareness of societal conservative norms established in educational setting of Universities in Sindh, Pakistan.
1-Ali Siddiqui MPhil Scholar, English Language Development Center (ELDC), Mehran University of Engineering and Technology (MUET), Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.2-Tania Shabir Shaikh MPhil Scholar, Institute of English Language and Literature (IELL), University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
Acid violence is a horrible act of gender violence in orthodox societies. A study was conducted to know the reasons for the acid violence against women in Pakistani society. For this purpose, female acid attack survivors were recruited from Karachi city of Sindh province in Pakistan. We found personal conflicts and rejection of marriage proposals as major reasons for acid attacks on women. The majority of the victims are being humiliated due to disfiguring of body parts and forced to live in isolation. This study recommends strong legal framework preparation by government authorities to curb such incidents and rehabilitate acid victims.
1-Sadia Ismail MS Scholar, SMI University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.2-Subhash Guriro Associate Professor, Department of Social Development, SMI University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Kamil Lakho Lecturer, Department of Social Development, SMI University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Referees and officials are a very important part of competitive sports not only because of their impact on players' behaviors and game outcomes but also because they ensure that competitions are conducted safely according to specific rules of the game. The current study sought to evaluate the relationship of these various levels to perform in numerous aspects of officiating. A second purpose was to evaluate proposed sources of referee efficacy as predictors of referee efficacy levels and performance. Football referees (n=100) who were officially members of different sports playing departments of Pakistan included HEC, completed a survey questionnaire that measured the experience as an official. Categories of Football Referees were divided into three groups of age, 25-35, 36-45 and 46-55. The result reported that the age category of 46-55 years old football referees had an optimal level of self-efficacy than other age categories 25-35 and 36-45.
1-Yasmeen Tabassum Department of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Iqra khadim Department of Sports Archeology and Tourism, Youth Affairs, Narowal, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Hurria Hussein Department of Sports for Women, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
This study explores the learning experiences of postgraduate students pursuing master's degree in higher education. The assessment students enrolled in the course "Application of Computer in Research" observed through semi-structured observations. These observations contained 16 weeks (4 days a week). The observation tool was validated through five experts' opinions, and a mock observation was conducted in order to ensure the reliability of the tool. The researcher deeply observed the students' learning experiences daily by tasks, activities and discussions in which they were involved by the teacherthe analysis procedures controlled through coding, memos and themes generation. The study findings revealed that experiential learning provided students with some important skills that enhance their learning in a better way. The study contributed to the field of education at a higher level than postgraduates might be handled through active learning because active learning may indulge new visions, ideas for creative work and transferring those ideas through reflection by involving students in the activities in which they do the tasks by themselves.
1-Sidrah Ilyas PhD Scholar, Institute of Education & Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Mahvish Fatima Kashif Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Hafiza Sadiya Iqbal Lecturer, Department of Education, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant improvements in the world's educational practices and has become a realization of the ideal of online education, whereas COVID-19 is a global problem that affects institutions of higher education (HEIs). The present study is based on the research question: what are the challenges and benefits of ICTs for hauling out university students' effective learning in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic? The study employed a qualitative research design, and a cross-sectional analysis approach was adopted to resolve the key research question. The research sample included 20 BS and MA level students, and during a session, an interview was conducted in the form of open-ended questions. The research concluded university students need internet access 24/7 within the premises and outside the university; in fact, they require free internet access. The study may suggest that the university may provide needy students with university data bundles and laptops.
1-Rashid Minas Wattoo Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Sialkot, Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Latif Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College Women University Sialkot, Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Namra Munir Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Education, Vehari Campus, Punjab, Pakistan.
This research was designed to evaluate the effect of cardiovascular exercises on body mass index (BMI) and vital capacity (VC) among student aged between 21-27 years (M ± SD 22.3± 3.05). The experimental research study was applied to 54 University students of Sargodha. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 24.0. P-value ? 0.05 was considered significant. The result showed that the average BMI of the control group and experimental groups was 20.73±3.02 vs 21.51±3.21. The effectiveness of cardiovascular exercise on Vital capacity on Pre and post-test of the experimental group was -56.91272 ± 22.03192 with a pvalue of 0.000, which was showed there was a highly significant improvement in vital capacity of students and compare with the control group. It was concluded that body masses index and vital capacity is significantly improved in university students of the experimental group as a result of 10 weeks of the cardiovascular exercise training program. Conclude that there is a significant difference between the effects of cardiovascular exercise and daily routine sports activities on BMI.
1-Yassar Iqbal Lecturer, Department of Sports Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Zubia Savila PhD Scholar, Centre for Sports and Exercise Sciences, University of Malaya, Malaysia.3-Muhammad Badar Habib Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education & Sports Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
The present study tends to explore the feminine subjectivity as a heart-throbbing phenomenon for men that keeps on prevailing in a patriarchal society. This is an exploration into the life of Pakistan's renowned writer, poet and human activist, Kishwar Naheed. Her autobiographical writing Buri Aurat ki Katha (A Bad Woman's Story) probes into the life of a female character who is being restrained by society due to her achievements and fame but gender discrimination prevailing in society compelled her to consider herself a stigma. Naheed is taken as a representative character to project the reality of a patriarchal society that denies feminine subjectivity in society. It covers gynophobia over men's mind towards women powerful and independent existence in society. This study contextualizes within the border of feminism theory that covers threat to female identity by throwing light to the perspective taken by Kristeva's views on feminism, majorly focusing on male jingoistic society. The present inquiry spotlights the ways in which women suffer through threatened, identity crisis, abuse, and oppression that further leads woman's journey of life restrained under social commands.
1-Amna Aziz Lecturer, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Aniqa Rashid Assistant Professor, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Tayyabba Yasmin Lecturer, Department of English, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The aim of this research is to analyze the historical process of continuity and change that led to the socio-economic transformation associated with irrigation sector development in nineteenth-century Multan, thus supplying a missing piece in South Asian Regional economic history and it became unplanned revolution and modernization as happened with colonial Multan. The introduction of the perennial canal system and the commercialization of agricultural crops provided a real opportunity for the economic development of this region. What were the socio-cultural impacts of regional economic policies, and how it penetrates as processes of continuity and change? This research derives its frame of reference by mixing historical, qualitative and quantitative methods of research. The selected data is analyzed from a dialectical rationale approach to critical discourse. This research is based on original, unpublished official reports from British Indian Library London, Punjab Civil Secretariat Lahore.
1-Abida Kausar Chuadhary Assistant Professor, Department of Pakistan Studies, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.
This study discusses the effect of greenwash and green confusion on purchase intention and determines the moderation effect of information and knowledge. The study is quantitative, so the researcher collected data from the university staff and faculty members regarding fast foods. This research study used the statistical package for social sciences to commence a quantitative study. The data was collected from 201 participants from the said population. The results assure that there is a negative relationship between greenwash and green confusion with purchasing intention. Therefore, the current study recommends that businesses reduce their greenwashing practices by not just claiming their "greenness" but also demonstrating the proof of their green products to avoid risk and customer misunderstanding. The result of the study confirmed that information and knowledge moderate the relationship between greenwash and green confusion with purchase intention. Furthermore, the companies will provide the committed environment with clear information. The study tries to fill the gap and improve the information and knowledge regarding fast food to the customer, which will improve the intention of the customers.
1-Faisal Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, Anbar, KP, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Sufyan Lecturer, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, Anbar, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Faizan Malik Assistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
In this brief article, an attempt has been made to revisit the Pakistan Movement in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, former North-West Frontier Province, which acquired a unique character in the sense that here the job of motivating the women was quite difficult because of the strict cultural values and way of life of women folk. Therefore the job of persuading women to participate in the freedom movement seemed difficult. In such circumstances, Begum Zari Sarfaraz rose up from the folk of Women and continued her effort despite discouraging conditions. In this paper, the role and contribution of Begum Zari Sarfaraz, the Khatoon-e-Sarhad, during the Pakistan Movement has been discussed and evaluated. In the line of this argument, the crucial struggle that she led during the final phase of the partition drama will be explored. As far as the literature on Begum Zari Sarfaraz is concerned, very little has been written on her personality as well as on her contribution to the cause of Pakistan.
1-Shaista Gohar Lecturer, Department of Pakistan Studies, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Nelofar Ehsan Lecturer, Department of Political Science, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Ayaz Ali Shah Lecturer, Department of Political Science, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Economic growth varies across different countries. Various potential factors have been identified over the years, but finding relevant determinants of growth has been a real issue for empirical investigation. This paper has attempted to examine different macro-economic variables that play a significant role in accelerating economic growth from 1970 to 2019. The econometric results show that human capital, financial development, and industrial production are the encouraging factors of economic growth, while the variable trade openness shows a negative effect on economic growth in Pakistan. Government should design policies to invest inhuman capital and fixed assets; this will create job opportunities for the people and leads to high economic growth.
1-Salyha Zulfiqar Ali Shah Assistant Professor, School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Muzammil Asghar Crop Reporter, Crop Reporting Service, District Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Umber Riaz Ph.D. Scholar, Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
he Gender may be divided into three types: male, female, and a mix of both. The last one is known by different names, i.e., transgender, hermaphrodite, eunuch, mukhannath, khansa, etc.Due to their special physical features, they are given less importance in most of societies. The present research highlights the legal status and rights of transgender in Islamic society. The research finds that under Islamic law,there are no separate laws for the transgender except a few. Transgender has no fewer rights than a man or woman. Although transgender are accepted and recognized in the Islamic world, even then, examples of their rejection are also found. Therefore, it is necessary to educate society that every person is equally respectable,whether it is a male, a female, or a transgender. Where a transgender is similar to a male person, he is treated as a male person, and where a transgender is similar to a female person, she is treated as a female person. Anywhere it is difficult to ascertain a transgender as a male or female, a transgender is to be treated like a human being. The doctrinal method of research has been adopted to conduct the present study
1-Amjad Hussain Assistant Professor, Department of Law, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Arif Saeed LLM, Department of Law, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Aas Muhammad LLM, Department of Law, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Human beings always need guidance to live a peaceful and progressive life. There are numerous ideologies that came into being for the guidance of human beings. Quran is one of the divine books whose addressee is none but human beings irrespective of their region and religion. This study aimed to analyze and understand the role of Quranic communication for the betterment of human society. In-depth interviews were conducted with Islamic scholars, Educationists, and sociologists. Later, a focus group was also conducted to expand the scope of opinions in terms of experience and culture. An extensive analysis of conducted interviews and focus groups was made in light of different communication theories such as hermetic and diffusion of innovation. The analysis revealed that Quranic communication is equally useful and applicable for the betterment of human society of any era. This communication should be transformed into an ideological shape that could be implemented on human society.
1-Arsha Saleem Meer Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan2-Rao Shahid Mahmood Assistant Professor, Department of Media Studies, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan3-Muhammad Bilal Nawaz Assistant Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab
This study critically questions the PLS paradigm of Islamic banks in fair distribution of profits.PLS paradigm theoretically enforces that there should not be a significant difference between the returns offered to IAH and returns offered to shareholders. Smoothing of return can have a potential problem as IAH do not have any control over managerial decisions while banks owner equity is affected through absorption through displaced commercial risk. Therefore, this study analyzes the previous literature in a critical and systematic way to ascertain if Islamic banks are distributing profits in a realistic manner or there are some anomalies in the PLS paradigm of Islamic banks. Furthermore, the literature was analyzed critically to find out the associated factors and constraints that lead Islamic banks to impairment of PLS paradigm. Through analysis of the literature, smoothing of income and PDM is discovered in the empirical studies of different researchers.Furthermore, constraints to efficiently and effectively managing the fair distribution of profits have been identified in the literature. These constraints shape several factors, which are broadly categorized as banking characteristics, macroeconomic and financial environment, geographic and population characteristics; corporate and legal environment. A diagrammatic representation of constraints framework is suggested based on available literature. Furthermore, future directions for future research are provided at the end
1-Qazi Sikandar Hayat Lecturer, Institute of Business and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan2-Brekhana Gul Lecturer, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan3-Muhammad Sohail Alam Khan Lecturer, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan