This research work was carried out in continuation of some previous researches in Pakistan on inclusion of social taboos in televised contents. The main objective was to set up a phenomenon of imperialism as television channels are becoming habitual in inclusion of social prohibited contents in their transmissions. The study resulted that offensive attitude, nudity and sexual elements were the major part of Express Entertainment televised contents. It was further resulted that unlawful marital status and drug addiction remained always been a part of its contents.
1-Farrukh Nazir PhD Scholar, Center for Media and Communication Studies, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Arshad Ali Assistant Professor,Center for Media and Communication Studies, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Farooq PhD Scholar, Center for Media and Communication Studies,University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.
Kazakhstan has made considerable progress in shifting from command to a market economy. The transition process towards a “market economy was expected to enhance the economic performance” of the country which in turn was anticipated to uplift the life of a common man. This study, therefore, aims“ to examine the impact of economic freedom on economic growth” of Kazakhstan. The results indicate that though the reform process of Kazakhstan is in a transition phase, yet economic freedom has contributed positively“ towards the economic growth” of the country.“The results also indicate that in sub-indicators of economic freedom, monetary freedom” and protection of property right have contributed to the growth of Kazakhstans economy while an increase in government size impedes the economic growth of the country."
1-Shaukat Hussain PhD Scholar,Department of International Relations,Preston University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Javed Iqbal Associate Professor,School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Zulfaqar Ali Chughtai Professor,Department of International Relations, Preston University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
A major health policy concern is the presence of inefficiencies in health care provision. This study estimates the technical efficiency for ambulatory services and inpatients care in private sector hospitals in Pakistan. Efficiency scores for the sample hospitals, estimated using Stochastic Frontier Analysis, are aggregated at the regional (district) level to identify the existence of spatial interdependence. The results from the spatial analysis suggest that efficiency has a positive spillover for outpatient care in small hospitals. Big hospitals, however, show inconsistent results. We concluded that small hospitals compete in outpatients with the motive of profit maximization.
1-Saima Bashir PhD Scholar,Department of Economics, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Stock markets are of prime importance for the stability and boosting of an economy; its development and formation of capital. An active and stable stock market induces effective and successful organizations. The stability of stock markets is always disturbed by fluctuations in certain macroeconomic variables. This study is an endeavor to find out the effect of these variables on the Pakistan stock exchange index both on long term as well as short term bases. Statistical tests were applied on the quarterly time series data from January 2004 to December 2018. The results of the study show that there is negative association among the rate of inflation and share price while the stock prices have positive association with exchange rate and rate of interest. Findings of this study could help the investors to gain positive returns from investment in stock market.
1-Raza Ullah Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences,Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.2-Kashif Saleem Assistant Professor,Department of Management Sciences,Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.3-Faizan Malik Assistant Professor,Department of Management Sciences,Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies measures how readers of a text engage with it and think about their own reading processes. This paper presents the findings of a descriptive study on the metacognitive awareness of reading strategy use on the undergraduate students of Lahore, Pakistan. The study makes use of the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), which is a selfreport instrument, and has 30 items on a 5-point Likert scale; it was administered to 500 public and private sector universities students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed for analysis through the use of SPSS, version 22. The results reported that problem-solving and support strategies are equally preferred over global strategies. Results of the t-test revealed that students from the public sector demonstrate greater strategy awareness than those from the private sector in all the subscales of MARSI, while no overall significant difference between Humanities and Sciences was found.
1-Asma Shahid Kazi Assistant Professor, Department of Professional Studies,Lahore College for Women University, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Shagufta Moghal Lecturer,Department of Professional Studies,Lahore College for Women University, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Zoobia Asad PhD Scholar,Research and Evaluation Department, Lahore College for Women University, Punjab, Pakistan.
This was proposed to investigate the effect of self-regulated learning strategies on students’ motivation for learning English. This was an experimental research. Intact group pretest and posttest of design was utilized for data collection. Intact groups (experimental and control) of student studying in eighth class were selected voluntarily. Experimental group was taught with SRL strategies and control group was taught with traditional strategy. In order to measure students’ motivation to learn English, data was collected at start and end of the study. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test was applied to compare the mean scores of control group and experimental group. It was found that SRL strategies had no significant effect on students’ motivation. In the light of above findings, it was recommended for the further research to examine the effect of SRL strategies on students’ motivation to learn on larger experimental population of various grades.
1-Umm e Habiba Elementary School Teacher,Education Department,Government Girls Elementary School Nawabpura, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Tahira Batool Assistant Professor,Research and Evaluation Department,Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Sayeda Ayesha Elementary School Teacher,Education Department, City District Girls High School Herbanspura, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
This paper empirically investigates the impact of the HR bundle on organizational innovation with the mediation effect of talent management in the oil marketing sector of Pakistan. The paper undertakes the quantitative analysis through a stratified random sample of 250 respondents, which undergone through various statistical analysis techniques. Finding depicts the positive significant relation of HR bundle on organizational innovation with the mediation effect of talent management. The findings allow managers to attain organizational innovation by contextual and contingency base HR bundling and talent management. The results contribute to the selection of relevant bundle that enables them to be innovative in the oil marketing sector of Pakistan. The major limitation of the paper is, it only considers the oil marketing sector but providing the theoretical foundation for future researches in another sector as well.
1-Muhammad Sohail PhD Scholar, Management Sciences, SZABIST Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Shazia Akhtar Associate Prof,Management Sciences,SZABIST Islamabad, Pakistan.
In the current world scenario, migration and dual nationality are no more uncommon phenomena. Globalization has given optimism and opportunities to the industrious individuals in the borderless world. This study is focused on the issues of those dual nationals who repatriate to their land of origin. The data was gathered qualitatively using descriptive methodology from Potohar; Bewal, Gulyana, and Gujar Khan. Rapport establishment and use of key informants helped to gain entry into the field. Observations and interview methods were gauged in the study. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used as tools of research. The data collection process took place over a span of six months. Findings suggested that repatriation led to a transformation in post-migration residence, acquisition of a neo citizenry in a socio-cultural context, trans-nationality, role reversals and crisis pertaining to neo-identity, socio-psychological issues and preservation of cultural ties at familial, group, community and national level
1-Mahwish Zeeshan PhD Scholar, Department of Anthropology,Quaid e Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Aneela Sultana Assistant Professor,Department of Anthropology,Quaid e Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
This study examined the effectiveness of an accreditation mechanism for teacher education exclusively with a fragile higher education system in Pakistan. A quantitative research method was employed. Using the stratified technique, 614 participants from 24 higher education institutions were selected. Questionnaires were used to collect data from participants. The findings revealed that the standards of national accreditation council for teacher education (NACTE) cannot win wide acceptability and support of educators. The accreditation mechanism in Pakistan has emerged less effective in meeting standards of imparting modern, relevant and quality teacher education in the country. A comparative perspective to explore the factors affecting the effectiveness of accreditation in assuring quality teacher education in an academically underdeveloped country Pakistan is discussed at the end of this article. This study provides essentialities of accreditation in teacher education programs. It carries the value of graduate attributes that is a brand image in the quality of teacher education program development.
1-Hina Jalal Student,Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Ayub Buzdar Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Bushra Naoreen Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The study aims to see the effect of the socio-economic background of learners on their language skills of 9th class students in public sector schools in southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Stratified simple random sampling technique was adopted following Krejcie and Morgan rule and 379 respondents were consulted for data collection. Two valid and reliable instruments were applied, first, the socioeconomic status scale and then test were conducted for finding ability in reading skills i.e. comprehension, fluency, identification of adverb, to skim and to scan the passages. Data was analyzed through mean; for checking the outcome of SE background on the reading skills, the mean of means was calculated. The students who have a supportive environment at home for English performed better in test scores of comprehension, fluency, adverb identification, skimming and scanning. The study recommends that students may be supported at home for polishing their reading skills.
1-Shehla Sheikh Ph.D Scholar,Institute of Education and Research,Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Kp, Pakistan.2-Allah Noor Khan Assistant Professor,Institute of Education and Research,Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Kp, Pakistan.3-Mazhar Gul Lecturer, Department of Education, Preston University, Kohat, Kp, Pakistan.
The augmented usage of digital technology, predominantly mobile ownership, has significantly altered the ways of doing the thing. The digital era with the internet-connected world is creating new venues for social and economic development, with efficiency in digital literacy for participation. The present article explores the digital literacy skills of women that enables them to be active members of the digital world. It also investigates the challenges, self-learning, and financial constraints among other few, which women face while acquiring these skills. The qualitative research is conducted in Islamabad and Rawalpindi using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The study indicated that 83% of women have learnt digital skills informally and yet these help them in strengthening their social networks, managing daily affairs regarding their personal life and most significantly being engaged in entrepreneurship from digital forums. This successful use of digital technology has contributed to their social and economic empowerment.
1-Sohima Anzak PhD Scholar, Department of Anthropology, Quaid-e-Azam university, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Aneela Sultana Assistant Professor,Department of Anthropology, Quaid-e-Azam university, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Mitchell et al. (1997) proposed that stakeholder salience is directly proportional to the number of attributes of salience—power, legitimacy and urgency—as perceived by managers. However, till date, researchers have differences about these attributes as determinants of salience. To resolve these differences and to precisely specify the attributes that make a stakeholder salient in the eyes of managers we attempted to gain deeper insights into this phenomenon. For this purpose, we employed multiple case study strategy in a purely quantitative treatment—a unique mix. Our findings suggest that the attributes as conceived by Mitchell et al. (1997) are quite broad and general. Managers identify salient stakeholders based on specific types of these and few other attributes. We found that stakeholders that possess utilitarian power, influence legitimacy, criticality and organized proximity are attended by the managers.
1-Anjeela Khurram Research Scholar,Department of RITM,University of Paris Saclay, Paris.2-Shahzad Khurram Assistant Professor,Department of Air University School of Management,Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Naeem Assistant Professor,Department of Business Administration,Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan.
This study investigated the most dominant patterns of code switching in Pashto English bilingual data. The data was collected in the form of a semi-structured interview and analyzed in the light of the framework of the Matrix Language Frame model. The study found out that insertion is the dominant pattern of code switching. The Embedded Language noun was the most prevalent switched element in the morpho-syntax frame of Matrix Language. The second most embedded language insertion in the matrix language was the English nonfinite verbs in Pashto light verb construction. The Embedded language island was the third most dominant pattern. The switched elements in the bare DP and the bilingual VP are content words following the Morpheme Order and System Morpheme principles of Pashto.
1-Arshad Ali Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics, UMT, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Anees Lecturer,Department of English,Govt College, Peshawar, Kp, Pakistan.3-Ghani Rahman Assistant Professor,Department of English, Hazara University, Mansehra, Kp, Pakistan.
The stock market plays a pivotal role in the sustainable development of an economy. Fishers hypothesis in the stock market specifies that stock returns are directly linked to the rate of inflation. The objective of this paper is to explore this relationship using panel dataset for 56 countries from 1950-2018 and applying general to a specific technique for above-average Money Supply/GDP countries and below-average Money Supply/GDP countries separately and for different income group countries i.e. high-income countries, upper-middle-income countries, and lower-middle-income countries. Our analysis indicates that the Fisher hypothesis holds in the world economies except for lower-middle-income countries but it holds in its weak form.
1-Surayya Mukhtar Lecturer Economics,Department of Economics,International Institute of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Abdul Rashid Associate Professor, Department of Economics,International Institute of Islamic Economics, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
This paper is an attempt to explore the buffering role of environmental factors and access to financial capital on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and SMEs performance relationship in Pakistan. The population of the study consists of all the SMEs that are operated in KPK, Pakistan. We select the sample from the Peshawar division, which includes three districts i.e. Peshawar, Charssada and Nowshehra. The study used a multistage cluster sampling technique. Through this technique, the study finally selects the 254 organization from the selected population. The managerial levels employees of SMEs were the respondents of the study and the responses were gathered through a structure questionnaire. The study found a significant positive relationship between EO and firm SMEs performance. It is also found that the relationship between EO and SMEs performance is moderated by access to financial capital. Furthermore, EF did not affect the relationship.
1-Muhammad Fayaz IBMS,Agriculture University Peshawar,KP, Pakistan.2-Shams Ur Rahman Assistant Professor, IBMS,Agriculture University Peshawar, KP, Pakistan. 3-Abdur Rauf Assistant Professor,Department of Economics,Abbotabad University, Haveleian, KP, Pakistan.
Behavioral finance challenged paradigms of standard finance by questioning rationality assumptions posed by market efficiency that had been a focal point for researches in finance and economics. This study aimed to test Strong-Form Efficient Market Hypothesis by employing data from emerging Stock Markets of Pakistan before its amalgamation and applied a different methodology. Firms were tested upon data availability and accordingly, ten firms were selected out of sixteen further for usability criteria of data. A part of the current study also validates the usefulness of dividend announcements for valuing the stock of KSE listed firms and suggested utilizing it in stock price revision. The market was found weak and strong form inefficient whereas the hypothesis for semi-strong form sustained overall
1-Taqadus Bashir Associate Professor,Department of Business Studies,Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Kanwal Iqbal Khan Assitant Professor,Institute Of Business & Management,University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.3-Saima Urooge Assistant Professor,Department of Economics, Islamia College University, Peshawar, Pakistan.
The present study is concerned with the phenomenon of topicalization in Pashto. It analyzed the information status of the referents in a sentence and their grammatical functions. The study is another contribution after the work of Roberts (2000) and Rahman (2014). The study was descriptive in nature and it found out the relationship between subject and topic in a sentence. The grammatical function of the subject and the topic were found out coincidentally occurring with the topic of the sentence. Both the subject and topic were found out commonly appearing at the initial position of the sentence. If the topic was any other constituent than the subject, then topicalization happened. The topicalized element is moved to the second or initial position of the sentence. Word order is determined by the information status of the referents where the topic comes first followed by the focused constituents, if not overruled by intonational prominence.
1-Ghani Rahman Assistant Professor, Department of English,Hazara University, Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Anees Lecturer,Department of English, Govt college, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Arshad Ali Khan Assistant Professor,Department of Linguistics,UMT, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Advertising appeals play an important role in the effectiveness of advertising to attract or grasp consumer buying intention. This study is based on the differential effect of advertising appeals on consumers buying intentions. The results of the study show that advertising appeals have strong impact on consumers buying intention. All the hypothesis of the study was positive and significant. The results of this study are helpful in decision making for the corporate sector to develop and effectively use the ideas of advertising appeals for the promotion of a particular brand
1-Arif Hussain Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Gohar Saleem Parvaiz Assistant Professor,Department Management Science, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Shams Ur Rehman Assistant Professor, Business Administration,Northern University Nowshera, KP, Pakistan.
This research work empirically assesses the relationship between the Quality Culture (QC) practices and core practices of Quality Management System (QMS) and investigates their direct and indirect influences on organizational performance. Data for this research work is collected from 80 Technical Services Organizations of Pakistan through mail survey and the proposed framework and hypotheses have been examined through Structural Equation Modelling. The results of hypotheses show that synergies among QCPractices have a positive impact on QMS-Core practices as well as organizational performance. Moreover, QMSCore practices mediate the relationship between QC-Practices and organizational performance. This empirically validated model can be used as a benchmark by future researchers for further examinations in other industries sectors, especially in manufacturing.
1-Khurram Rehmani PhD Scholar,Department of Engineering Management,NUST, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Afshan Naseem Assistant Professor, Department of Engineering Management,NUST, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Yasir Ahmad Assistant Professor,Department of Engineering Management,NUST, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.
The study aimed at finding out the association between selected learning styles (LS) and academic achievement (CGPA) of postgraduate learners in the faculty of social sciences. The study was quantitative. The population of the study was postgraduate learners enrolled in the fourth semester of the social sciences faculty at the University of Sargodha. The sample was drawn using random sampling technique from five social sciences departments. The sample size was three hundred. The questionnaire was comprised of 60 items on a five-point Likert scale Cronbach alpha calculated for reliability of the questionnaire and it was.84. Academic achievement was measured while accessing the CGPA of learners. It was found that mostly learners use auditory learning style (ALS) in the social sciences and there is a strong association of auditory style of learning and CGPA. The study has ultimate, implications for classroom planning, organizing and teaching at postgraduate level.
1-Uzma Shahzadi Assistant Professor,Department of Education,University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Ashfaque Ahmad Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Syeda Zunaira Fatima Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.
This study is aimed to examine the impact of US News and exchange rate exposure on emerging economies of Pakistan, China, Turkey and Iran. Daily exchange rates have been used for the period Jan 1, 2003 to Dec 31, 2018 to identify the volatility in exchange rate exposure due to news effect. US News is modeled with variance equation respectively for each country exchange rate. GARCH (1,1) by Bollerslev (1986), and EGARCH (1,1) by Nelson (1991) models have been used to estimate the volatility of exchange rate dynamics. Results indicate that impact of US News is significantly positive on the exchange rate of Pakistan and China and the results of US news impact on Turkey and Iran are insignificant. Present study is helpful for investors, financial analysts and economic decision makers for understanding the changing dynamics of exchange rate volatility.
1-Rana Shahid Imdad Akash Assistant Professor,School of Business Management,NFC-IEFR, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Kashif Hamid Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Management Sciences,University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Iqbal Mahmood Associate Professor,Government College of Commerce, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
This paper establishes a theoretical lens through which funding bodies can see the effectiveness of an entrepreneurial education program, from the perspective of institutional accountability. In this regard, quality notions; exception, fitness for purpose, perfection, transformation, and value for money are put to the investigation during semi-structured interviews. The interviewed data were analyzed qualitatively by employing discourse analysis. The findings of the research suggest that the notion of quality in the entrepreneurship program is a blend of value for money and transformation.
1-Gohar Saleem Parvaiz Assistant Professor,Department of Management Science, Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.2-Arif Hussain Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Studies and Leadership,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Shams Ur Rehman Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration,Northern University Nowshera, KP, Pakistan.
his study is conducted to identify the direction of the relationship between working capital management (WCM) and firm performance of the non-financial sector of Pakistan from 2009 till 2018. This has also looked at the effect of restricted access to loan on the WCM- Profitability relationship. The findings confirmed that restricted loan accessibility impacts the WCM-Profitability relationship. The comparative analysis demonstrated that financially constrained firms are mostly non-family firms that are new, growing, smaller in size, face high risk, maintain high liquidity and tangibility ratios than non-constrained firms. Further, the working capital levels of financially constraint firms is lower because of high operating expenses and greater capital rationing. Managers and scholars may use these findings for the administration of their working capital policies in order to avoid the financial cost and create more opportunities for financial accessibility which is further beneficial for making informed investment decisions, yielding higher profits that contribute towards sustainable growth.
1-Kanwal Iqbal Khan Assistant Professor, Institute of Business & Management,University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Adeel Nasir Assistant Professor,Department of Management Sciences, Lahore College for Women University, Jail Road , Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Aniqa Arslan Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad, Karachi, Pakistan.
This research aimed at analysing the Grade VIII English textbook of Punjab Textbook Board against one of the five competencies, the Reading and Thinking skills and identifying the satisfaction level of Grade 8 students with their textbook for the fulfilment of this competency. The main parameters of the content analysis were Competency (C), Standards (S), Benchmarks (B) and SLOs. The data was collected through content analysis (of the textbook) and survey questionnaire. The student satisfaction level was measured with the help of an instrument comprising 10 statements on a 5-point Likert scale. The questionnaire respondents were 1440 students of Grade VIII studying in public schools of Lahore. The results of content analysis and student survey showed that the textbook partly meets the requirements related to the selected competency. It is therefore recommended that the English textbook of grade VIII should be updated in congruence with the SLOs of the selected competency.
1-Sana Baig PhD Scholar,Department of Research and Evaluation,Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punja...2-Aishah Siddiquah Assistant Professor,Department of Research and Evaluation,Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Fareeha Javed Assistant Professor,TESOL Department,Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punja...
This study was conducted to find the influence of teachers effectiveness and students attitude on students academic achievement in science subjects at secondary school of district Dera-IsmailKhan. An important aim of the study was to explore the impact of teachers effectiveness and students academic performance on the subject of science. A multi-stage and stratified random sampling technique was used for data collection. The survey questionnaire was used. A standardized questionnaire was used and this questionnaire was also validated. A normality test was applied to normalize all variables. Reliability was checked through Cronbach Alpha and it was found in the range given by (Pallant, 2010). The data-was-collected-from teacher at the secondary school level. The hypothetical influence was tested using simple regression. The teachers effectiveness was found significantly on students academic achievement as β=0.727 p<0.05. Similarly, the influence of students attitude found significantly positive on students academic achievement as β=0.616 p<0.05.
1-Zameer Ahmad PhD Scholar,Department of Education,Qurtuba University D. I. Khan, KP, Pakistan.2-Zafar Saleem Assistant Professor,Department of Education,Qurtuba University D. I. Khan, KP, Pakistan.3-Khalid Rehman Lecturer, Department of IBA,Gomal University D.I.Khan, KP, Pakistan.
This study was conducted to explore and compare perceptions of Subject Specialist Teachers about their role as a humanistic student guide. Subject specialists were taken from 28 male and 13 female higher secondary schools situated in Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Structured questionnaire was used for data collection. As per the data analysis, it was concluded that most of the teachers did not possess proper awareness f a humanistic approach for the guidance of the student. Student guidance was almost absent due to lack of skills, resources, time specification for the purpose of the school administration and expertise. It was noticed that the situation in female higher secondary schools was almost the same as it was noted in the male schools as no significant difference of perception was found among male and female teachers. There was a need for proper training, and provision of resources for an appropriate guidance of the students.
1-Azmat Ullah PhD Scholar,Institute of Education and Research,Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.2-Malik Amer Atta Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research,Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Ayaz Chairman,Department of Education and Research,The University of Lakki Marwat, Lakki Marwat, KP, Pakistan.
Enterprise education and training play a pivotal role in bridging workforce skills and improving the performance of small businesses. Considering the significant role of small businesses, this study attempts to investigate how small manufacturing units improve their performance using training methods. Therefore, for this study mixed-method approach was adopted to find the relationship between both variables. In the first part of the methodology, face to face, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with business owners and managers. Furthermore, survey questionnaires were carried out to find the relationship between both variables. For a mixed-method approach, 26 owners/managers were interviewed, and 136 respondents were identified from food and furniture manufacturing units with several employees who comes on the definition of small firms. The results of the study confirm in small firms positively impacted the individual performance and overall non-financial turnover of employees. The study concludes with future recommendations for academicians and policymakers.
1-Fahad Sultan Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Studies and Leadership,Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Syed Haider Khalil Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Studies and Leadership,Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Syed Mohsin Ali Shah Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Studies and Leadership,Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
This study explores the relationships between positive and negative Organizational Behaviors and Workaholism; and the relationship of these OBs with productivity and gender of engineering students in Pakistan. Most of the researchers have studied OBs among faculty or administrative staff in universities. The study of these behaviors among students is a new area. An eight-stage innovative qualitative codebook thematic analysis was used to analyze semi-structured interviews from 22 faculty members to explore the relationships of OBs with productivity and gender of engineering students. A comprehensive model of relationships between OCB, DB, WA, and the productivity of engineering students has been built which was previously missing from contemporary literature. Gender has also been found to have a relationship with various behaviors. The findings here are important for practitioners and scholars for a better understanding of the relationship of OBs with the productivity of engineering students, to enhance their productivity through the promotion of desired behaviors.
1-Humayun Sattar Ph.D. Scholar,Department of Engineering Management,National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Tasweer Hussain Syed Assistant Professor,Department of Engineering Management,National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.
The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007) traces the evolution of Changezs sense of belonging by encompassing a substantial part of his life odyssey, ranging from his movement to the US for higher studies to his disillusionment and redirection of fundamental desires. This study explores those transformative stages that help shape his identity. For this purpose, James Marcias theory of identity achievement has been used as a theoretical framework. Marcia (1980) contends that certain situations and events (called crises) act as catalysts to prompt identity moratorium. The internal conflict caused by such catalysts stimulates adolescents to probe into their beliefs, goals and values. Changez also encounters the four statuses described by Marcia i.e., identity diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium and final achievement. Consequently, a refraction in his sense of belonging takes place - from love for American exceptionalism to love for Pakistan and Islam (Morey, 2011). This study evaluates the level of identity achievement in Changez as a result of this refraction
1-Ayesha Perveen PhD Scholar, Department of English & Literary Studies, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab,Pakistan.2-Nadia Anwar Assistant Professor, Department of English and Literary Studies,University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The current study explores the conceptual understanding of secondary level students in mathematics. The participants were 1320 students of 10th grade and 180 students of 11th grade randomly selected from 33 public secondary and 17 higher secondary schools of Lahore. The article describes the performance of students on six grade 1-7 level questions related to numbers, number operations, and algebra. One question was knowledge level and rest five were analysis level questions. Four questions were related to Knowledge of primary level Content and Students that required participants to analyze the error or explanations related to the problem. The other two questions were related to middle school content knowledge. The questions were adapted from Hill et. al. (2004)s instrument of Study of Instructional Improvement (SII). The success rate of students was ranging from 52.8 to 63.8 % on six questions and from 22 to 73.5 % on 15 sub-questions.
1-Namirah Aslam PhD Scholar,Department of Research and Evaluation, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Aishah Siddiquah Assistant Professor, Department of Research and Evaluation,Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 3-Mobeen Ul Islam Assistant Professor,Department of Education,University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.
This article describes the syllable of Pakistani English (PE. It compares the syllable of PE with British English, in the light of concepts of syllabic (Chomsky and Halle, 1968), syllabification, template, syllable pattern, model of syllable structure, phonotactics and syllable weight. In the end, the following differences in syllabic phonology of PE and British English are summarized: In phonotactic constraints, one difference is found that is in the syllable of PE cluster of three consonants i.e. /s/, /p or t or k/, /l or r/ is allowed only in monosyllabic words, whereas word internally this cluster is not permissible. So, [ek.sklIUd] becomes [eks.klIUd] in PE; the weight of the syllable in PE is not only based on the quality of vowel but also the quality of consonant; in PE every syllable must contain vowel as a nucleus.
1-Umaima Kamran Assistant Professor, Department of English, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Saira Maqbool Assistant Professor,Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics,Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Lubna Umar Lecturer, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics,Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan.
This research determines the role of the Organizational Environment in reducing the effects of the Techno-Stress on Work Behavior of the University Teachers. The quantitative research method was followed whereas descriptive research design for being the most befitting in these kinds of investigations was opted for reaching certain findings and drawing the conclusions. The study was conducted on 394 university teachers appointed in various public sector Universities situated in the province of Punjab. A scheduled questionnaire built on a five-point Likert scale was used for gathering required data, whereas, in addition to descriptive analysis, inferential analysis of the collected data was done using t-test, correlation, and regression. Results of the study revealed that a significant correlation among the organizational environment and techno-stress prevails, whereas the analyzed data affirmed a significant effect of the techno-stress on the work behavior of the University Teachers.
1-Abid Ali Khan PhDScholar, Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Asif Jamil Professor,Department of Education,Qurtuba University of Science & Technology, DIKhan, KP, Pakistan. 3-Khuda Bakhsh Assistant Professor, Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The main objective of the study was to analyze the association of mathematics achievement and cognitive engagement at the school level. The research was followed by a quantitative research method following a survey by administering a questionnaire on sampled 300 students for data collection. Half of them were male students and the other half were female students in District Lahore. Data were analyzed using inferential and descriptive statistics. The researcher has used two instruments first one mathematics achievement test and second students cognitive engagement in mathematic. The sample was selected by convenient sampling technique. The study revealed that students level of association of engagement and achievement was high. The study also revealed that gender difference exists in students mathematics achievement and students cognitive engagement. The study was also found a positive and strong relationship between students deep level strategies used in mathematics with achievement. This study recommends that the gender difference in mathematics achievement needs attention.
1-Tahira Batool Assistant Professor,Department of Research and Evaluation, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Sofia Akhtar Dy.DEO (W-EE), Depalpur. Education Department,Government School Education Department, Pakistan.
he major purpose of this study was to investigate “Relationship between Teachers Classroom Management Skills and Students Academic Achievements at Secondary level districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,” All government secondary schools of southern district were constituting the population of the study and all teachers and students of the secondary schools were also included in the population of the study. From each district, eight schools were selected as a sample from which four schools were male and four schools were female. From each school, five teachers and 20 students were selected as a sample or respondents in this way 280 teachers and 1120 students were selected as a sample of the study. The sample of the study was finalized by using the John Curry formula. The collected data was entered into SPSS version 23 for treatment. According to the nature of the objectives of the study T. Test, Pearsons correlation was used.
1-Gul Andaz Khan Ph.d Scholar,Institute of Education & Research,University of Science & Technology, Bannu, KP, Pakistan.2-Rahmat Ullah Shah Assistant professor, Institute of Education & Research,University of Science & Technology, Bannu, KP, Pakistan.3-Safdar Rahman Ghazi Assistant professor,Institute of Education & Research,University of Science & Technology, Bannu, KP, Pakistan.
Respect means due regard for the rights of others, wishes and feelings on the behalf of their achievements, qualities and abilities. The study was cross-sectional in nature. The population comprised of principals, teachers, parents and students of all Public, Private schools and Deena Madras of Southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The key purpose of the study was to compare Public, Private schools and Deeni Madaris students regarding respect as a moral adjustment in society. The total numbers of (n=1500) respondents including “Principals, Teachers, Parents and Students” were taken as a sample through L.R. Gay Size rule of thumb. Convenient, stratified, simple random and disproportionate sampling techniques were used to gather data from the respondents. A statement regarding respect was developed on the six points following Likert type scale. Data was statistically analyzed through SPSS by using frequency and one-way ANOVA that provide important information for policymakers and the stakeholders. Results and conclusions were drawn. It was concluded that respect.
1-Mati Ullah Khan Ph.D Scholar,Institute of Education & Research,Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.2-Allahnoor Khan Assistant Professor, Institute of Education & Research,Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Saqib Khan Lecturer, Institute of Business Administration,Gomal University, Dear Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.
The war against terrorism was started by the Bush administration after the attacks of September 11th . In this context, America attacked Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003 alongside British forces and NATO allies. The present article explored the agenda of the British press regarding War against Terrorism in British press. The study conducted thematic analysis of two mainstream British daily newspapers i.e. The Guardian and The Independent. The standpoint of the British press was inferred to find out either they supported the government stance or they adopted a critical viewpoint regarding these two wars. The results indicated that the British press advised their government to adopt responsible approach to deal with the crisis. Mostly, the issues related to terrorism, Al-Qaeda, US policies and British role in the war against terrorism dominated the news agenda of the British newspapers. The press stressed on the strong role of UNO during the war against terrorism.
1-Aasima Safdar Assistant Professor,Department of Communication Studies,Bahuaddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Samia Manzoor Assistant Professor, Department of Communication Studies,Bahuaddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Beenish Zaheen Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication,The Women University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
The research was designed to identify and analyze the need for School MIS at secondary and higher secondary school levels in Punjab. Three separate questionnaires were developed for school principals, teachers and parents. The population of the study was the principals, teachers and parent members of the school councils of public schools. Punjab has 36 districts and the study was delimited to 12 districts selected randomly. A 10% sample from each of twelve districts was taken. Findings of the study indicated that there is no type of school-based MIS available in public schools and there is a dire need of school-based MIS to easily record and retrieve information. It was concluded that school efficiency cannot be improved significantly without introducing school-based MIS in public schools of Punjab
1-Jahangir Afzal PhD Scholar, Department of Educational Planning,Policy Studies and Leadership (EPPSL), Allama Iqbal OpenUniversity Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Tanveer Afzal Assistant Professor, Department of Science Education,Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Trainings are offered to all level of teachers at different phases of their careers. There are empirical foundations that these trainings have major impacts on the quality of teachers and resultantly on the quality of education. The study was conducted to investigate the quality of the induction training for elementary teachers of QAED, Punjab as perceived by the participants of the training. This study focused on teachers who received induction training in 2017. A questionnaire was developed to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were applied conclude. The newly-inducted teacher stated that the training was aligned with their professional needs. They were satisfied with the quality of physical and learning facilities, the subject matter knowledge, and the overall quality of training. They like training design, duration of training sessions, course content, finally, effective follow up of the training were the major findings if the study.
1-Adila Khanam PhD Scholar,Division of Education,University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Asghar Ali Assistant Professor,Department of Education, University of Malakand, KP, Pakistan 3-Asia Zulfqar Assistant Professor,Department of Education,Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
Non-entrepreneur refers to a person who is non-actor and absent from entrepreneurial actions and not making intention towards entrepreneurship. An exploratory case study method (Yin, 2014) was used to carry out the research. Unstructured interviews were conducted with four non-entrepreneurs and field notes were written down on the notebook with the pencil to save the data. Thematic analysis was applied to the text to reach the important themes deducted from views and perceptions of the participants. Finding of the study depicted that lack of personal intention and will, lack of knowledge and information about entrepreneurship, lack of understanding the entrepreneurship, no familial association with business, family involvement in the selection of career and education were major impediments. In the end, important implications were drawn i.e. seminars and conferences must be conducted to overcome the hurdles of lacking the understanding of entrepreneurship.
1-Muhammad Furqan Ashraf PhD Scholar,Department of Sociology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Babak Mahmood Associate Professor, Department of Sociology,Government College University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Mudassar Mushtaq PhD Scholar,Business Administration,National College of Business Administration and Economics (NCBA&E) Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Higher education institutions, in the knowledge economy, have a significant role in encouraging innovation and ultimately accelerating economic growth by the creation and transfer of knowledge. This study concentrates on the construct of knowledge entrepreneurship in higher education institutions of the public and private sectors in Pakistan. It highlights the competencies required to enhance knowledge entrepreneurship in presence of an encouraging organizational climate. Using the dynamic capability theory, this study theorizes the essential role of Personal, Professional and social competencies of faculty members in Higher education institutions in creating and disseminating various forms of knowledge while the organization maintains support, encouragement, leadership and the vision to accomplish the same. Implications and areas for future research are highlighted for further expansion in literature.
1-Nida Kamal Senior Lecturer,Department of Business Studies,Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Bakhtiar Ali Professor,Department of Management Studies,Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Hina Samdani Senior Assistant Professor,Department of Business Studies,Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
The study examines the volatility spillover between selected emerging Asian and developed stock markets. Moreover, the study analyzes the impact of the financial crisis on volatility spillover between the stock markets. This study used monthly observations for the period 2001-01 to 2017-12 on three emerging markets of Pakistan, China, India and three developed markets of Hong Kong, Japan and the US. First, the asymmetric volatility transmission between the stocks is analyzed by extended EGARCH representation. The study found the existence of asymmetric volatility spillovers throughout the financial crisis. The researcher estimated the VECM granger causality test in the next step. The outcomes revealed existence of bidirectional spillover between Pakistan and India, the US to Japan and Hong Kong. Unidirectional relationship was found from Pakistan and the US to Hong Kong, India to the US and Hong Kong to China. Overall, the results suggest a significant relationship between emerging and developed markets due to integration.
1-Muzammil Hussain PhD Scholar,Department of Economics,University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Rehmat Ullah Awan Associate Professor, Department of Economics,University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Hammad Hassan Assistant Professor,Department of NOON Business School, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.
Womens social, economic and political status is differently defined by the advocates of Modern Civil Society (MCS) and Traditional Civil Society (TCS). It is generally assumed that TCS gives little or no status at all to their female group of the society. This issue is still very critical in poor and developing countries including Pakistan. The current study has been conducted to statistically testing the assumptions of positive relations between MCS and women status (WS) and negative connections between TCS and WS. Notably, both positive and negative relations have been significantly proved by first-hand data from a sample of 205 (n=241; return-rate=85%) subjects. The findings support the higher level of WS as per the values of the MCS.
1-Robina PhD Scholar, Department of Political Science,Qurtuba University, D.I Khan, KP, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Imran Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences,Qurtuba University, D. I Khan, KP, Pakistan.3-Maaria Sultana Assistant Professor,Management Sciences,Lahore Leads University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Tolerance, peace and social cohesion are the most significant and substantial values of society. In the scenario of Pakistan, the existence of above-mentioned values are prominently correlated with each other. The aim of this study was to assess the need of training program to counter the negative effects regarding the existing level of tolerance, peace and social cohesion among university students. Population of this study was consisted of Government College University Faisalabad. A questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative. 280 students were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical test were applied to assess the difference between their opinions. The findings of study demonstrated low level of tolerance, peace and social cohesion among university students and identified various factors affecting low level of tolerance, peace and social cohesion among university students.
1-Anila Yasmin PhD Scholar, Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Naeem Mohsin Associate Professor,Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Ayub Buzdar Assistant Professor,Department of Education,GC University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The following paper tries to socially understand gender norms and the possibility of subversion of the recommended roles. Judith Butlers (1990) Performative theory of gender acts, discussed probability of gender subversion in various societal conceptualizations of gender. The undertaken study, through thematic analysis, investigated particular characters in a fairy tale, The land of stories: Beyond the kingdom (2015). It was found that gender was a social construct, and it existed due to repeated and accepted socially ascribed practices. The characters reconsidered gender through subversion by breaching the expected traditional societal gender norms. Though, for the intelligibility, these reconsidered gender roles needed recurrence. The findings also seemed to assert that the subversive acts could be shocking and unacceptable, but, they do not possess the potential to terminate the established gender norms, rather, just assist the characters to meet their ends, towards fresh identities and roles in the extensive societal dominion.
1-Zainab Akram Assistant Professor,Department of English,Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.2-Uzma Imtiaz Assistant Professor,Department of English,Fatima Jinnah Women's University Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Sumaira Shafiq Assistant Professor, Institute of Kashmir Studies,University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.
The research aimed to an investigation of comparative analysis of research supervision practices of research supervisors in KP universities. Objectives of the study were to find out the current practices of research supervision in M. Phil and Ph.D. Quantitative method and descriptive survey research design were used for the study. The 46 supervisors were taken as a sample of the study using a total population sampling technique. Research supervision practices questionnaire was used with a four-point Likert scale. The data collected from supervisors and then analyzed in SPSS. It was found that the majority of supervisors used research supervision practices like feedback and they are specialized in their area and have managerial skills for better research. It was recommended that supervisors maybe encourage and guide their research scholars where data or information (Literature) may be assessable in the relevant library. It is also recommended that supervisors may facilitate the research scholars by using their personal contact for the research.
1-Muhammad Naeem Abbasi M.Phil. Scholar,Department of Education,The University of Haripur, KP, Pakistan.2-Saddaf Ayub Raja Assistant Professor, Department of Education, The University of Haripur, KP, Pakistan.3-Umbreen Ishfaq Satti Assistant Professor,Department of Education,The University of Haripur, KP, Pakistan.
The Military s involvement in the political system of Pakistan began from the mid-1950s and continued verily as a guardian, a praetorian, or ruler on various occasions. Its disengagement, after the direct intervention, remained usually slow and gradual. Hence, it took a long time for disengagement and created a power-sharing model instead of transferring power to the civilian elite. The pattern of civilianization adopted by the Ayub Khan and Zia-ul-Haq was also adopted by the Musharraf regime with few changes. In his early days, though, General Pervaiz Musharraf demonstrated intention for economic revival, accountability, devolution of power, and democratic consolidation as his foremost goals and took some steps towards that direction but he abruptly reversed those steps when he sensed a threat to his dominating position in a self-created system. This paper is an attempt to critically analyze the process of civilianization during the period under consideration based on the theoretical framework and practical norms of the democratic system.
1-Sughra Alam M. Phil Scholar, Department of Politics and IR, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Nawaz Bhatti Associate Professor, Department of Politics and IR,University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Asia Saif Alvi Assistant Professor,Department of Politics and IR,University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.
Social capital is a significant resource for Small and Medium-sized firms. Social Capital resources generate assets for firms which in turn contributes towards the performance of firms. The paper analyzes the relationship of Social Capital with SMEs Performance operating in Sindh. Research has investigated the impact of the personal, professional, associative, and institutional network towards performance. To attain the purpose of the paper, the data was gathered using a questionnaire from 395 entrepreneurs of SMEs of Sindh Province. The regression and correlation techniques are employed to evaluate the relationship and to investigate the hypothesis. Results revealed a significant relationship between Social Capital and Firms performance
1-Saqib Wahab Mahar PhD Scholar, Institute of Business Administration,Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur Mirs, Sindh, Pakistan.2-Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro Professor,Institute of Commerce,Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur Mirs, Sindh, Pakistan.
This study is designed to find the effectiveness of Learning Cycle Model (LCM) on students learning in physics at the secondary school level. To achieve this objective, null hypotheses were tested. All physics students of Haripur district Khyber Pukhtunkhwah Pakistan at secondary level were included as the population. Eighty (80) physics learners of grade 9th of Hazara Public School and College (HPSC) were chosen as sample of the study. True experimental research design was employed. The pupils were divided uniformly into experimental and control groups such that 40 students included in each group. Physics Academic Achievement Test (PAAT) of reliability coefficient 0.82 was utilized. Experimental and control groups were instructed through LCM and Traditional Teaching Method (TTM) for twelve (12) workweeks. Statistical outcomes showed that pupils instructed via LCM were found more effective learners in Physics than the pupils instructed via TTM.
1-Kifayat Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Education, The University of Haripur, KP, Pakistan.2-Wajeeha Aurangzeb Assistant Professor, Department of Education, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Tehsin Tahir Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Haripur, KP, Pakistan.
This study discovers the effect of cooperative learning (CL) on students’ achievement and motivation toward computer science at secondary level. Nonequivalent control group design of Quasi-Experimental Research method was used. Two intact groups i.e. thirty students each, were selected as the sample of the study. Students Team Achievement Division (STAD) method of CL was applied on the experimental group while traditional method (lecture) of teaching was used for control group. Pre-test and post-test were conducted respectively by using teacher made test in computer science. Students’ Motivation toward Computer Science Learning (SMTSL) scale was adapted to explore student’s motivation toward computer science. This study significantly indicates that the posttest motivation and achievement scores of students were better than the pretest motivation and achievement scores toward computer science learning. The study promotes CL approach for computer science learning, and intervention should be given for a long time period to observe its effectiveness.
1-Aroona Hashmi Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Mubushra Khalid Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Tariq Hussain Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Bilingual education has been controversial since the beginning of educational programs, there is still uncertainty among school leaders while deciding the medium of instructions for their system especially while measuring its impact on students’ learning. This research evaluated the outcomes of bilingual education for the subject of History. The target population of this research was grade V students studying in a private school In Pakistan. This study explored benefits of bilingual teaching by adopting Urdu language explanation and discussion for clarifying details. Scaffolding and Translanguaging were applied during the history periods and positive results were recorded after the intervention., benefits were observed on the overall academic performance, class participation and conceptual clarity of the experimental group who were taught with bilingually. Conclusively, bilingual instructions proved to be aid that supported learning.
1-Sara Sehar School manager, Department of Social Science, Greenwich University, Karachi, Pakistan.2-S. Khurram Khan Alwi Associate Professor, Department of Social Science, Greenwich University, Karachi, Pakistan.3-Mohammad Shaiq Director ORIC, Department of Social Science, Greenwich University, Karachi, Pakistan.
This study aimed at exploring the impact of educational leadership processes such as goal setting, strategic resourcing, curriculum quality, quality of teaching, promoting teaching-learning, and a safe environment on positive work attitudes at the higher education level. Positive work attitudes were delimited to job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. A descriptive survey research design was used to collect quantitative data through two questionnaires; educational leadership practices questionnaire and positive work attitude scale. Results indicated that a positive correlation exists between two research variables. Simple linear regression analysis reflected that the highest Beta coefficients exist between goal setting and positive work attitude. It was concluded that in a sphere of mutual honor, trust, and allegiance between superiors and subordinates the work attitudes strongly correlate positively. It is recommended open door policy, consultative practices among educational leadership, and training for employee empowerment may be adopted to increase organizational productivity.
1-Wajeeha Aurangzeb Assistant Professor, Department of Education, National University of Modern Languages H-9 Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Tehsin Tahir Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Haripur, KP, Pakistan 3-Kifayat Khan Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Haripur, KP, Pakistan.
Green Pakistan is a very famous slogan nowadays and one of the core objectives of the present government. This research focuses on the qualitative perspective on the need and significance of Environmental Education in Teachers Training programs to provide awareness to forthcoming teachers. Environmental Education is included in Millennium Development Goals by the United Nations. Recently the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been launched by the United Nations and subsequently, Pakistan has signed a treaty to fight against Climate Change and Global Warming. The researcher examined the modules which are to be incorporated in the syllabus of teacher education. The inclusion of modules apropos of Environmental Awareness in Teachers’ Training programs was recorded highly beneficial in numerous experimental studies all over the world and particularly in Pakistan in one of the doctoral-level research. The correlation among Millennium Development Goals, Sustainable Development Goals, and due to continuous learning process improvement in the Environment at local settings was established based on a qualitative study.
1-Sohaib Sultan Assistant Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Shehzad Ahmed Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Okara, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Imran Assistant Professor, Department of Education, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.
This research.is designed to assess the effects of the leadership style of the secondary school principals on the school improvement. It was basically descriptive research in nature and for the collection of data survey method was used. Twenty senior school leaders from the AJ&k Mirpur department and 60 senior teachers from the public sector were selected as subjects. Samples were selected using simple random sampling techniques. Two questionnaires were prepared, one for the principal and the other for the senior teachers. Mean, standard deviation, and linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The result revealed that the leadership style of the school heads greatly contributed to the progress of the school. It is recommended that the principal must understand the level of learning in his department and the ability to share leadership style with the faculty and staff in order to get the most out of the academic process
1-Maria Noureen PhD Scholar, Department of Education, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K, Pakistan.2-Nazir Haider Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K, Pakistan.3-Shazia Zamir Assistant Professor, Department of Education, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.
This study retrospects the idea of financial assistance program (school voucher program) proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. It examines the current education voucher program of Punjab education foundation designed for students of low-income families. The research aims to see efficacy of Public Private Partnership in school education in Punjab. It analyzes private schools choices for poor students through government financial subsidy program for basic education in Punjab. The financial subsidy program has become pervasive recently. The research was descriptive in nature based on opinions of Program administrators/Directors of Punjab Education foundation, Schools owners, Principals, teachers and parents related to private schools of Punjab education foundation. The results drawn through observation, questionnaires, interviews. checklists indicated that this program increases choices for poor families to enroll their children in schools of their preference because of quality, pedagogical approaches, affordability and geographical location regardless of financial barriers.
1-Rashid Iqbal Klasra PhD scholar, Department of Education, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Afshan Huma Assistant Professor, Department of EPPSL, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
The major aim of this study was to evaluate the enrollment trends in Technical subjects at secondary level. The study was descriptive in nature and quantitative approach was applied for conducting this study. All the teachers, students and parents of Gujranwala Division in Punjab were the population of the study. Stratified random sampling technique was applied for the selection of sample. Three questionnaires were used in this study for the collection of data. Data were collected through personal visits of sampled schools. Data were analyzed by using percentage, mean and independent sample t-test. It was found that majority of students were enrolled in session 2019-20. Furthermore, majority of the students were enrolled in technical subjects on the demand of their parents and technical subjects have fame among the students. It is recommended that the government may arrange some kind of public awareness seminars at local level.
1-Kousar Parveen PhD Scholar, Department of Education, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K.2-Nazir Haider Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K.3-Ziarab Mahmood Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K.
This research work is to explore the role, status and perception of female education with respect to a budgetary change in District Peshawar. Education changes people leadership and makes them live with flexibility. The objectives were (i) To find the perception of female education regarding socio economic status (ii) to know the role of women as mother, wife and daughter, is to be assessed. The research study was restricted to Peshawar. For the administration of the study tool, a random sampling technique was used. A simple random sample, of 240 participants, of Peshawar District was chosen randomly. The main findings of the study included: (1) Somewhere between 5,001 and 10,000 Rs, wages of a mind sweeping number of respondents were consistent. In all cases, most respondents earned different settlement wells to Rs.5000; (2) the mostly respondents ensured criticality for the female as the directorate deals with budgetary problems and personality
1-Waqar Un Nisa Faizi Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Islamia College Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.2-Wilayat Bibi Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Syed Shafqat Ali Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.
Drawing from Conservation of Resources Theory (COR), the current research examined the direct and indirect relationship (PsyCap, work engagement) of perceived supervisor communication styles and cyberloafing. Data from 367 full-time employees working in 64 different firms were collected through a standardized scale. The findings revealed that assertive communication style has a negative relation with cyberloafing while passive and aggressive communication styles have positive associations with cyberloafing. Moreover, PsyCap partially mediates the relationship of supervisor communication styles (assertive, passive and aggressive) and cyberloafing. Additionally, employee work engagement partially mediates the relationship of supervisor communication styles (assertive, passive and aggressive) and cyberloafing. The study suggests that leaders can reduce employee involvement in cyberloafing through effective supervisor communication and intrinsic motivation factors such as PsyCap and work engagement. Limitations, future directions, theoretical contributions and managerial implications are also highlighted.
1-Sajid Rahman Khattak Assistant Professor, Department of IBMS, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.2-Hafizullah Associate Professor, Institute of Businesses Studies (IBS), Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Zahid Awan Professor, Department of IBA, Gomal University D.I.Khan, KP, Pakistan.
We estimate the public debt sustainability for 53 developing countries divided into different regions using data from 1996 to 2017. Sustainability of public debt calculation is based on theoretically derived models with necessary and sufficient conditions. Current study empirically validates the importance of least evident saving-investment gap along with other variables in public debt sustainability issue. Findings show that current account, fiscal account and saving-investment gap imbalances cause unsustainable public debt for all different regions which is a matter of great concern for each region. Policy makers of the developing countries must bring policies to promote investment activities backed by saving not by debt.
1-Ayaz Khan PhD scholar, Department of Economics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Zahoor Ul Haq Professor, Department of Economics, Pakhtunkhwa Economic Policy Research Institute, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Javed Iqbal Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Pakhtunkhwa Economic Policy Research Institute, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Homework is the means by which the relationship between home and school is demonstrated and developed, leading to more consistent progress in all aspects of school life. The current research was carried out in Gilgit Baltistan to find out the impact of homework on the academic performance of students at secondary level. The research was observed by teachers of Gilgit Baltistan public schools while 100 teachers were chosen by a random sampling technique as a sample. Questionnaires were as a research instrument. The study found that homework impacts learning for learners, its impact differs with the age of students, and it plays an important role in student achievement. The study proposed that homework should be purposeful, i.e. it should include the introduction of new content, the practise of skills, the creation of any data and the ability for students to explore topics of their own interest.
1-Muhammad Nisar Ul Haq Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Development, Karakoram International University, Gilgit - Baltistan, Pakistan. 2-Anila Fatima Shakil Associate Professor, Department of Education, Jinnah University for Women Karachi, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Naseer Ud Din Professor, Institute of Education & Research, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.
Learner autonomy refers to a state where a learner seeks the understanding of the concepts more independently, takes charge of his own learning and becomes more motivated and self-supportive towards the learning procedures. The present study explored the existing practices of EFL learners with reference to autonomy practices, in the context of Punjab, Pakistan. The autonomy of the learners was examined through their use of foreign language learning strategies. The sample of the study consisted of 104 university students from arts and science groups. The results indicated that the students of science group were using more autonomous learning strategies as compared to the arts group.
1-Ayesha Butt Assistant Professor, TESOL, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Faisal Anis Assistant professor, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Amna Yousaf Assistant professor, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The recent trend of rural-urban migration has consumed most of the open spaces in cities leading to higher build-up to open space ratio. This has adversely affected the ecological balance and environment. This paper is about the Spatio-temporal analysis of three major cities of Pakistan to find the impacts of reduced open spaces between 2000-2015. The data was collected using Google Earth Pro and Arc-GIS. The identified open spaces were classified into six different classes of open spaces. The extracted data was also validated by point data comparison on 30 different locations through Google Earth Pro. The results depict an interesting development as a decreasing trend in open spaces for the years 2005-2010 are shown, while an increasing trend is visible between 2010-2015. Moreover, consumption of open spaces has resulted in many social and economic impacts on the community. Finally, it is recommended that strict policy measures are needed to provide adequate proposition of open spaces in cities and to safeguard the existing stock of open space available in urban areas.
1-Beenish Javaid PhD Scholar, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Abdul Waheed Assistant Professor, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Zafar Iqbal Zafar PhD Scholar, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan.
The study was determined to find the factors that affect the teachers' practices in the implementation of the ECCE curriculum in public schools. The study was quantitative in nature, and a cross-sectional survey design was used. All the ECCE teachers in public schools formed the population of the study. The proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed, and 278 teachers were selected as a sample of the study. The data were collected using the questionnaire on factors affecting teachers' practices in the implementation of the ECCE curriculum. The findings showed that there is a significant difference on the basis of experience as p (0.000) ? 0.05 and an insignificant difference on the basis of qualification and class size as p (0.000) > 0.05. The study recommended that teacher training institutes of early childhood care and education should induct the curricula that are activity-based, and schools may provide better learning conditions in ECCE centers.
1-Raima Mubashar MPhil Scholar, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Aroona Hashmi Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Fasiha Altaf Ph.D. Scholar, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Sara Suleri is divided between her fascination for her father's strong character and her repulsion for the consequent effect on woman's space in family life, connoting a critique of Pakistani patriarchal society in which women, irrespective of their social status, suffer from marginalization. Although Suleri's Boys Will Be Boys is an elegy for her father, as she announces in the sub-title of the work, she manages her tilt toward her father despite her advocacy of the woman's space miserably shrunk to domestic life in Pakistani society. Besides womens position, she questions the dominant version of history and the state's political manipulation of religion for ulterior motives. She is close to Boehmer's theorization of the elitist continuities and intimacies with a view that develops from geographically and historically multiple contexts and histories. Her role as a native intellectual is two-pronged: her view is colored by Western discourse, but her status as a 'representative' Pakistani voice is also significant. This article analyzes how far Suleri's representation of women, religion and history of Pakistani society is colored by Western context.
1-Ghulam Murtaza Associate Professor, Department of English, GC University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Mazhar Hayat Professor, Department of English, GC University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Syed Ali Waqar Hashmi Research Assistant, Department of English, GC University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The problem of the study was to explore the impact of academic achievement orientation in the context of private and public sector university students; it further aimed to investigate the impact of demographic variations such as gender, age, semester, birth order, number of siblings, discipline and family income in determining the level of academic achievement orientation of private and public sector university students. The achievement orientation attitude scale developed by Ansari was used to measure achievement orientations, which was consisted of 10 items. Data was collected through a stratified random sampling technique. Data were analyzed with various statistics, which provided an insight that students differ in terms of academic achievement orientations. Results revealed that students of public sector universities have higher academic achievement orientations. It is also recommended that at the university level, students may also learn self-management and ought to work hard in order to achieve their academic goals without an external push.
1-Wajiha Kanwal Chairperson/ HOD/ Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Wah, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Tahir Aziz PhD Scholar, Department of Education, University of Wah, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Saqib Shahzad Associate Professor, Department of Education, Abdul Wali khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Gwadar and Chabahar port both have significance due to their geostrategic position for the emerging economic powers of Asia, India, and China. Gwadar port managed by China under the CPEC agreement, while on the other side, Chabahar port funded by India under Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) which was signed on 23 May 2016 between India, Afghanistan, and Iran. Both ports are located in a significant strategic position for an energy trade route to connect Central Asia, Middle East, and Europe. Due to economic cost, both ports came into competition with each other. However, Iran and Pakistan both states deny any competition with each other and both states keenly interested in building cooperation and connections with each other. No doubt China is the emerging economic power of the world while the US try to contain China's growing influence in the Asian region for its resources. This paper focused on the nature of both ports and built arguments that possible strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threat in the light of comparative analysis through descriptive studies
1-Shabnam Gul Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.2-Sabahat Jaleel Lecturer, University of Engineering and Technology Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Faizan Asgher MPhil, Peace & Counter Terrorism Studies, Minhaj University Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Syrian war is rooted in the conflict between the Sunni opposition and Shia leader President Bashar, torn the country. The Syrian war took baby steps during the Arab Spring, which was supposed to bring hope and prosperity to Syria but unfortunately led to a series of horrifying protests that grew into a 9-year long civil war. The war-torn country has forced millions to escape the horrors of continuous fighting only to seek refuge in other countries with bare minimum resources. Multiple efforts by the International Organizations (I.Os) to halt the conflict between President Bashar and the opposition have repeatedly failed, and apparently, there is no hope for a peaceful solution. This paper aims to explain the Syrian war and break down the reason behind each ally's support to the chosen party and understand the Syrian conflict through the lens of Realism. The realist theory will shed some light on the root cause of international intervention by world powers and regional powers and how each actor's actions prolonged the conflict in Syria. And finally, to understand how domestic and international politics was used to carry out heinous crimes against innocent Syrian men, women, and children and analyze the strategies of actors to gain power in the region.
1-Sohail Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Mubeen Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Inayat Kalim Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
The political debates are the major indicators to open a dialogue and to set the tone of politics in society. The elections' debates in Pakistan are directly linked with the nature of the state and its ideological and elite composition. The post-colonial state structure and its reflection in electoral politics is a dominant determining factor which led to induce order through objectifying in existing electoral status quo. The dominant forces on the electoral scene have the power to interpret the existing knowledge production and debate for their own interest. Both objectivities and subjectivities in which electoral debates operate are in control of the post-colonial state structure. This paper is an attempt to explore the articulation of electoral debates in academic knowledge production. Further, how does existing academic debate explain the nature of electoral politics? Why?The purposively selected academic debates on elections revolved around functionalist and interpretivist paradigms influenced by the existing debate between subjectivity and objectivity. The descriptive method has been applied in exploring a research question under study.
1-Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad Assistant Professor, Centre for Policy Studies, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Post-Doctoral Fellow, School of Politics and International Relations, The University of Nottingham United Kingd
The evolution and growth of press in the Subcontinent revolutionized the flow of information and propagation of political activities. All-India Muslim League went through the process of reorganization in the late 1930's and the new political resolve needed more publicity and propaganda to expand further among the masses. League handled the need of the hour by starting its party-owned newspapers while the provincial Leagues and some of the League organs launched their newspapers to publicize policy and program of the party. The major share in the press came from the Leaguers and pro League newspapers from all over India. The last phase of the freedom movement witnessed the emergence of a more radical and outspoken press in support of the demand for Pakistan. Overseas publicity and press remained weak ground for League due it financial constraints. The Middle East zone was omnipresent in League's activities due to its Islamist stance.England publicity wing started working quite late but it remained successful in making a mark over the minds of the public. The American front was neglected and only a few appearances were available to propagate League and its demand for Pakistan.
1-Muhammad Anwar Lecturer, Department of Pakistan Studies and History, National University of Modern, Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Shahzad Qaisar Lecturer (Visiting), Department of Pakistan Studies and History, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan. 3-Jamila Begum Lecturer, Department of Education, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.