Global Social Sciences Review - GSSR

Volume 4, Issue 3 (Summer-2019)

A Comparative Study of the Kashmir Conflict Coverage in Pakistani and Indian Press
Pages : 1-9

The paper compares the coverage of JNK conflict in the Pakistani and Indian English press. The objective of the study is to figure out the differences in the coverage of Kashmir conflict by the Indian and Pakistani press along with determining the prominence of war or peace frames in the coverage. Content Analysis was carried out of the news stories published on the international and national pages of English daily The Nation and Dawn from Pakistani press and English daily The Hindu and Times of India from the Indian press. The results revealed that war framing was recorded as the most dominant coverage pattern with respect to Kashmir conflict. War frames were more dominant in the Indian press coverage as compared to the Pakistani press and the differences in the coverage of the press of the two countries are significant.

1-Ayesha Saddiqa
PhD. Scholar,Centre for Media and Communication Studies, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Farish Ullah Yousafzai
Dean,Faculty of Arts, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

Politics of Identity and Redrawing the State Boundaries in India: An Historical Perspective
Pages : 10-16

This article will examine the idea of new states/provinces in India. How India created 16 new states on ethno-lingual, and other lines and accommodate the ethnic groups. The case study of India is focussing on the different factors; including constitutional setup and role of different political parties of India in making of the new state. The following three basic questions investigate the paper’s perspective. First; what has been the basis of demands for the creation of new states in India? Second; what are the main hurdles in the reorganization of state and what urged the redemarcation of states in India? Third; what has been the stance of political Parties about the creation of new states in Indian state?

1-Muhammad Shoaib Malik
Assistant Professor,Department of Pakistan Studies, NationalUniversity of Modern Languages Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Azhar Mahmood Abbasi
Lecturer, Department of Pakistan Studies,National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Saima Gul
Lecturer, Department of International Relations, University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan

The US War on Terror in Afghanistan and its Impact on FATA in Pakistan
Pages : 17-24

The US counterattack on Afghanistan in October 2001 changed in the overall security structure of the region. The Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters escaped the US bombing of the Tora Bora in Afghanistan and crossed into the FATA region of Pakistan. Pakistan’s military operations against these militants in the FATA provided a boost to the latter’s cause and almost the entire FATA experienced a sort of Talibanization. The US war in Afghanistan had its spillover effect in FATA. Terrorist activities unleashed in the entire Pakistan and turmoil in Afghanistan added fuel to this situation. FATA’s special constitutional status was adding to the woes of Pakistan and subsequently FATA was merged with the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). This paper analyzes the impact of the US war in Afghanistan on the FATA region of Pakistan.

1-Fazal Wahid
Visiting Faculty,Department of International Relations, University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

Hamlet and Pluralism: A Postmodernist Metaphor
Pages : 25-30

The present study means to investigate Hamlet in the light of postmodernist-Deconstructive theoretical framework. The play seems to reinforce the overarching dominant patriarchal meta-narrative, with supposed unitary voice and unified identities. The current reading means to show that the play is a metaphor of postmodernism with pluralistic subjectivities, multiple alternative micronarrative voices. It manifests the postmodernist notion of subjective, personal and local truth, against the idea of universal truth and reality. Its major features are self-difference, undecidability, and uncertainty. The regimes of truth in the form of dominant ideology are challenged, deconstructed and undermined, creating a zone of the postmodern condition of reality and truth as the effect of power and rhetoric. The postmodern condition does not push for the replacement of one totality with another. It creates a third space of pluralism, where all the voices are disjoined in a zone of the difference without hierarchy.

1-Muhammad Ayub Jajja
Associate Professor, Department of English, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.

Bureaucratic Efficiency as Determinant of Trade Openness in SAARC Countries
Pages : 31-38

The study explores how bureaucratic efficiency effects international trade in Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, and Srilanka. A composite indicator of government effectiveness is used to measure bureaucratic efficiency and model is estimated by using the SYS-GMM. It is well recognized that bureaucratic efficiency is vital to the enhancement of trade, whereas the result shows that a negative relationship exists between bureaucratic efficiency and trade openness. Similarly, encouraging link exists between government size and international trade as the government provides different services to enhance the trade at the international market.

1-Rabia Saghir
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Business and Technology, Foundation University Rawalpindi Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Arshad Khan
Associate Professor,Department of Management Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.

3-Nazima Ellahi
Assistant Professor,Department of Management Science, Foundation University Rawalpindi Pakistan.

A Comparative and Narrative Analysis: Executive Leader as Team Builder at the University Level
Pages : 39-47

This study was to compare and narrate the difference in the role of team building, through self-assessed inventory by VC (Executive Leader), observation sheet filled by co-workers as well as the narrated view of executive leaders regarding team-building of the newly established University of the region. Concurrent triangulation mixed-method design was followed. Vice-Chancellors of all Public universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan constitutes the population of the study. According to the design, the same sampling technique was used. Four ViceChancellors of newly established Universities and five observers among their co-workers of each VC were taken as respondents of the study. There were significant differences among the self-assessed views of VCs regarding team building and views of their coworkers and narrative views of executive leaders at newly established universities. For team leadership, egalitarian style, knowledge of emotional intelligence and target-oriented communication are recommended

1-Uzma Syeda Gilani
Lecturer in IER, University of Science and Technology, Bannu. KP, Pakistan.

2-Umar Ali Khan
Director IER, Preston University, Kohat Campus, KP, Pakistan.

Antecedents of Careerism: A Mediated- Moderated Model
Pages : 48-55

The contemporary investigation was conducted with aimed to investigate the relationship of proactive personality and careerism. The said relationship was not tested in isolation rather it has been tested with the inclusion of career self-efficacy as a mediator and two moderators (openness to experience, extroversion). It was basically an attempt to build/ analyze the relationship of proactive personality with careerism which was not fully captured in the previous literature. In addition, the current study conducted a comparative analysis for male and female to identify the proactive behaviors in handling their careers. The population for the current was study selected from different private FMCG related firms. The analysis revealed that proactive personality has a significant relationship with careerism. Female respondents report lower proactive behavior than male. Overall the results supported three hypotheses and the one related to moderation was rejected.

1-Shazia Akhtar
Associate Professor, Department of Management Sciences, SZABIST, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Faisal Malik
Ph.D. Scholar,Department of Management Sciences,SZABIST, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Muhammad Asim Afridi
Associate Professor Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University, Abbottabad Campus, KP, Pakistan.

Direction Metaphors in Political Discourse: Imran Khan and the Rhetoric of Change
Pages : 56-61

Journey Metaphors are among the most pervasive source domains used both in daily life and in political discourse as they follow a clearcut source-path-goal schema where the direction is a fundamental element. The crossdomain mapping between source and target domains is a means of gaining insight into the cognitive activity of the speaker. Metaphors of the journey are widely used in the political discourse generated by Imran Khan with special emphasis upon direction. Metaphorical expressions identified from speeches of Imran in both English and Urdu language have been analyzed using the Critical Metaphor Analysis approach given by Charteris-Black (2005) where linguistic metaphors have been interpreted semantically, pragmatically and in cognition to generate conceptual metaphors. Khan’s obsession with direction activates the PAKISTAN IS OFF TRACK conceptual metaphor necessitating a journey of change under his leadership. He highlights the failures of others to evoke images of a destructive past from which freedom becomes essential.

1-Lubna Umar
Lecturer, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics,Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.

2-Umaima Kamran
Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Zubair Khan
Lecturer, Department of English, University of Science & Technology Bannu, KP, Pakistan.

Development and Validation of Indigenous Deliberate SelfHarm Scale
Pages : 62-70

Deliberate Self Harm (DSH) is a pervasive issue in Pakistan. The limited research on this phenomenon conducted in Pakistan is restricted by the non-availability of an empirical assessment measure of self-harm in the Urdu language, hence relies mostly on the interviews of cases reported to the emergency departments and those translated does not necessarily carry the same connotation. An indigenous deliberate self-harm scale was developed to cater to this issue. Factors of DSH were identified using Nock’s integrated theoretical model and literature review. Sixty-five items were generated. Content Validity Index (CVI) was calculated. The scale was administered on a sample of 200 self-harm cases.EFA revealed a three-factor structure (i.e intrapersonal, interpersonal and situational) supported by Parallel Analysis. RASCH analysis supported the item fit. This scale can be a helpful tool for the researchers and clinicians to explore DSH in the native population.

1-Afifa Gull
PhD. ScholarInstitute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan..

2-Najma Najam
Professor Emeritus,Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Growth and Productivity Analysis of Micro Finance Sector: A Case Study of Pakistan
Pages : 71-79

This study reviews the growth strategies and their effect on the efficiency and productivity of the microfinance sector of Pakistan. The sector needs to have adopted intensive growth strategy instead of extensive strategies of wide expansion in term of physical infrastructure and human resources, which had increased the financial sustainability risks for the credit constrain institutions. The sixdimension model of outreach used in this study also shows that the sector does not achieve the targets set forth for these micro finance institutes with respect to its active borrowers’ outreach. The sector has mainly focused the big cities and urban areas whereas the poverty levels are higher in rural areas. The government has also shown its interest by launching two different types of loan schemes. Among the three different types of institution, the microfinance banks dominate the sector.

1-Adnan Ahmad
Assistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Ilyas
Lecturer, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.

3-Muhammad Nisar Khan
Lecturer Department of Management Studies, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, KP, Pakistan.

Are NGOs Bridging the Gaps? Analyzing Opportunities for Gender and Political Empowerment in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Pages : 80-87

Gender and development approach gained attention during the 1990s, since then government and nongovernmental organizations adopted these approaches for gender and political empowerment in Pakistan. This paper analyzes the contribution of NGO towards gender and political empowerment in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This study explored how NGOs interventions created opportunities for gender and political empowerment. This study presents an analysis of NGO policies and practices for gender and political empowerment in the research area. Qualitative research methods including semi-structured interviews and participant observations were used to conduct this study. The study revealed that NGOs created spaces for political awareness and participation of men and women community members, councilors and policymakers. This study argues that NGOs interventions can create opportunities and effectively contribute to gender and political empowerment goals if contextually planned and implemented in the research area.

1-Dur E Shawar
Ph.D. Scholar,Department of Development Studies, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, KP, Pakistan.

2-Bahadar Nawab Khattak
Associate Professor, Department of Development Studies, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, KP, Pakistan.

3-Abda Khalid
Assistant Professor, Department of Development Studies,COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, KP, Pakistan.

Feedback Effect on Secondary School Students Achievement in Mathematics
Pages : 88-95

This study provides the empirical support that how feedback support students to improve their achievement in mathematics. The sample of the study was 87 students of Mathematics in grades IX. There were 43 students in the control group and 44 students in the experiment group. Groups were matched on students’ results in Mathematics in grade 8 to ensure the equivalence of both groups. Furthermore, a pretest was also conducted to confirm equivalence. The researcher employed different techniques and strategies of feedback while teaching mathematics to the experiment group. At the end of the intervention, the participants of this study were posttested. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS 15 version. A comparison of pretest and posttest scores of control and experiment group has shown a significant effect of feedback on students’ achievement in mathematics. The average and the low ability learners of the experiment group outperformed the learners of the respective abilities in the control group.

1-Tahira Batool
Assistant Professor,Department of Research and Evaluation,Lahore College For Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Mumtaz Akhter
Professor,Department of Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Impact of Economic Value Added Dynamics on Stock Prices Fact or Fallacy: New Evidence from Nested Panel Analysis
Pages : 96-105

Present scholarship targets to examine the robustness of EVA in Pakistan and information content while controlling prior research ignored firm-specific factors towards excess stock returns. The design of this research used panel data analysis whereby relevant, incremental information content and event analysis of EVA and conventional accounting performance measure via share prices is done by employing nested panel data analysis for 70 non-financial PSX listed companies from 13 industries for a study period of 2006-2015. Against prior research, EVA doesn’t add to the incremental information content of the model. Moreover asymmetric results were revealed using nested and separate regression analysis. This study is aimed to benefit stakeholders in the context of prudent investment choice. This study identifies ROA as the most important financial performance metric for local investor’s decision making. However firm-specific characteristics like financial leverage, liquidity, and firm size also play a pivotal role.

1-Malik Adil Pasha
Ph.D. Scholar Department of Management Sciences, Preston University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Ramzan
Associate Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Preston University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Muhammad Asif
Visiting Faculty,Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Financial Literacy as a Life-Saver: Moderating the Contribution of Behavioral Biases towards Investment Decisions
Pages : 106-114

The assumption of investor rationality had been central to developing an understanding of financial markets and decision outcomes. But the formation and consequent burst of tech-stock bubble changed the paradigm and shifted towards the behavioral interruption aspect of investor psychology. The study aimed to investigate the relationship of two heuristics and one emotional bias with financial decisions and the moderating effect of financial literacy on the said relationship. Primary data is gathered through questionnaire from 208 clients of national savings. Moderation analysis was done and the effect of biases on the financial decisions was found significant enough. Furthermore, financial literacy moderates this relationship positively only for heuristics but no moderation found for selfcontrol. The policymakers can design their financial instruments and strategies by keeping in view the implication of biases on investor’s decision. Moreover, periodic financial literacy sessions can be arranged to create awareness among investors and advisors.

1-Faisal Mehmood
Ph.D. Scholar,Management Sciences,Bahria University, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan.

2-Taqadus Bashir
Associate Professor, Department of Business Studies,Bahria University, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan.

3-Altamash Khan
Lecturer,Lahore Business School, University of Lahore, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan.

Psychological Capital of Employees' Engagement: Moderating Impact of Conflict Management in the Financial Sector of Pakistan
Pages : 115-123

Human capital is the backbone of any business and its behavior reflects how the company would achieve its goals and objectives in its business. This study examines the relationship between psychological capital (PC) and employees’ engagement (EE) with the moderating role of conflict management (CM) in the financial sector of Pakistan. A questionnaire composed of established scales were administered to 278 employees in the financial sector, including various banks, investment companies, real estate companies, insurance companies, and brokerage firms at Islamabad. After determining the reliability, the model was analyzed with the help of correlation and regression. Research indicates that PC positively influences EE. This relationship improves further positively when conflicts are handled effectively. Overall, this effort contributes to the existing literature on the history of worker’s involvement by examining the direct impact of PC and CM on EE and moderation of CM.

1-Muhammad Asif
PhD Scholar, Department of Management Sciences,Preston University, Islamabad Campus, Kohat KP, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Azizullah Khan,
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences,Preston University, Islamabad Campus, Kohat KP, Pakistan.

3-Malik Adil Pasha
Lecturer, Department of Commerce,Federal Urdu University Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Effects of Demographic Attributes on Perceptions of the University Administrators about the Implementation of e-Learning Management and Delivery Practices in Pakistan
Pages : 124-131

This study is intended to find out the effects of demographic variables on the perceptions of university administrators about the implementation of e-learning management and delivery practices. Simple Random Sampling technique was exercised to choose public and private sector universities which were functioning in Lahore and Gujranwala division, recognized by Higher Education Commission, Pakistan. The data was collected from university academic administrators. A pilot study was conducted to develop a questionnaire for administrators. Data were analyzed through SPSS-21. Findings were confirmed that the four demographic variables have a significant effect on the perceptions of university administrators about elearning management practices and delivery practices. Therefore, it is recommended that universities should focus on demographic variables on changing the perception of the administrators during implementing the e-learning infrastructure.

1-Imtiaz Hussain
Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Education,The University of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Iftikhar Ahmad Baig
Professor,Department of Education, The University of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Iftikhar Haider Malik
Assistant Professor,Department of Education,The University of Sargodha, Gujranwala Campus, Punjab, Pakistan.

Impact of Foreign Remittances on Quality of Life: A Case Study of District Lower Dir, Pakistan
Pages : 132-139

This research study examines the impact of remittances on quality of life. In order to accomplish the objectives, the study uses primary data which are collected from 403 households of District Dir Lower, Pakistan. Results summarized that incoming foreign remittances have a positive effect on education. Foreign remittances improve the household income level, this income is further utilized for different educational expenses. Therefore, remittance recipient families spend more than that of non-receiving families on education. In addition, remittances also increase the probability of children’s enrollment in schools. On the other hand, remittances are positively associated with family health status. The results revealed that 83% of the remittance recipient families have the ability to access basic healthcare needs, whereas 64% of non-receiving households have no access to basic health facilities. Additionally, remittances receiving families mostly prefer a private doctor and private hospitals, whereas non-receiving household usually uses government hospital facilities.

1-Haidar Farooq
Student, Department of Economics, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Sabahat Subhan
Assistant Professor,Department of Economics, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Yasir Riaz
Student,International Institutes of Islamic Economics (IIIE),International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Correlation of Students' Self-efficacy, Adaptability and Entrepreneurial Intention
Pages : 140-147

The current study is an investigation of the correlation between students’ Self-efficacy, adaptability and Entrepreneurial Intention. For appropriate results and understand the phenomena; a descriptive research method was used. Previous entrepreneurial aptitude scale of the author was used for data collection from seven universities of Punjab and Islamabad territory of Pakistan. 3rd and 4th semesters’ students (MBA and M.Sc Economics) and 7th and 8th semesters’ students (BBA honor and BS Economics) of management science and economics departments were selected. Total 560 questionnaires were randomly distributed in respondents out of which 493 were returned with in scheduled period. Data examined by the Factor analysis, T-test, ANOVA, correlation tests in SPSS-20. Results revealed that students’ SE, adaptability and EI are highly correlated with each- others.

1-Naeem Ullah
Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Shakir
Lecturer, Department of Educational Training,The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Jam Muhammad Zafar
Assistant Professor, Department of Teachers Education, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan.

An Exploration of Public Engagement in Public Board Meetings
Pages : 148-154

This study explores the purpose and role of public board meetings in the British National Health Service as an aftermath of public sector reforms. It deviates from the mainstream methodologies to study boards in action as it employs an ethnographic approach. Data has been collected through participant observation, in-depth semi-structured interviews from eighteen board members and members of the public, and documents in the form of board agenda and meeting minutes. Findings reveal that the purpose of the public board meetings is to manage their public image and to protect their reputation as rational actors and serve as a reporting function that excludes the public from active participation. Hence, this study asserts that public board meetings serve as a formal ritualized practice that performs board meetings. This study has practical implications as similar reforms have been introduced in other public organizations.

1-Humera Manzoor
Assistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Khushnood
Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.

3-Rao Aamir Khan
Assistant Professor,Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.

Linking Strategic Orientations, Dynamic Capabilities, and Firm Performance: Evidence from the Pakistani Pharmaceutical Industry
Pages : 155-162

The paper aims to extend the resource-based view to dynamic capability view under dynamic environment, by investigating the effects of three strategic orientations (i.e., customer, competitor, and technology) on firm performance mediated through dynamic capabilities. A sample of 180 pharmaceutical firms of Pakistan was drawn using simple random sampling. Data was collected through a self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed using the variance-based structural equation modeling. The findings demonstrated that customer, competitor, and technology orientations have both a direct and indirect relationship with firm performance. The study offers Pakistani pharmaceutical firms a better comprehension of their strategic orientations and demonstrates how the alignment of strategic orientations with dynamic capabilities may result in better firm performance.

1-Shehla Zaman
Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Management Sciences,COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan.

2-Aneel Salman
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences,COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan.

3-Omer Farooq Malik
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences,COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad Campus, Pakistan.

Trust, Rewards and Training Impact on Employee's Work Engagement: An Evidence from Banking Sector
Pages : 163-169

Pakistans banking sector shows a key role in its economic growth. Employee behavior in this sector is greatly affected by job-related factors. The drive of the study was to assess the impact of trust, rewards, and training on WE in the banking sector. Data were collected from a random sample of 150 correspondences through the survey questionnaire. The model of correlation and regression was used to scan the connection between the variables. Results based on the model of correlation and statistical regression revealed that all three factors, including trust, reward, and training, have a positive influence on the WE of the employees. This research is a distinct study of trust, rewards and training consequences on the employees WE from a banking perspective. The outcomes of the study, therefore, have a number of suggestions in the field of human resource for researchers and practitioners.

1-Hazrat Bilal
Assistant Professor, Center for Management and Commerce, University of Swat, KP, Pakistan.

2-Naveed Farooq
Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Studies & Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.

3-Lala Rukh
Lecturer, Center for Management and Commerce,University of Swat, KP, Pakistan.

Investigating the Relationship between Identity-Based Leadership and Employee Engagement with Employee Core Self-Evaluation
Pages : 170-180

Based on social identity approach, present research intends to investigate the impact of identity-based leadership on employee engagement, through the mediating role of employee core-self evaluations. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the measurement model. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized model. The proposed model was supported empirically by data collected from 327 employees who work in the telecom sector of Pakistan. The result indicated that employees Core selfevaluations act as a mediator between four dimensions of identity leadership and employee engagement. Identity-based leadership also showed a direct positive relationship with employee engagement.

1-Tahreem Baloch
Ph.D. scholar, Department of Leadership & Management Studies,National Defense University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Muhammadi Sabra
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS,Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Muhammad Zia-ur- Rehman
Department of Leadership and Management StudiesNational Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Method for Teaching Mathematics at the Secondary Level
Pages : 181-187

Mathematics is considered as an important subject which is taught up to the secondary level as a compulsory subject. Students’ achievements are influenced by the attitude they have for Mathematics subject and the attitude towards Mathematics is affected by teachers and the teaching methods adopted by the teachers. The aim of the study was to find out the effectiveness of the inquiry-based method for Mathematics instruction at the secondary level. The research sample was 30 students studying at secondary level in district Attock. Pretest posttest control group design was used for this research study. Experimental and control group were formed equally on the basis of pretest achievements. Both groups were taught for two weeks. The experimental group was treated with an inquiry-based method using the 5-E model while the control group was treated by the traditional method. After treatment posttest was held and results were compared. Results revealed that the inquiry-based method was better than the traditional method.

1-Khalid Mehmood
Ph.D. Scholar,Department of Education, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Qaisra Parveen
Assistant Professor, Department of Education, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Muhammad Arshad Dahar
Assistant Professor, Department of Education, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.

Assessing the Impact of Corporate Governance on Non-Performing Loans: Empirical Analysis of the Listed Commercial Banks of Pakistan
Pages : 188-196

Financial crisis shows the ambiguous role of the corporate governance system. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of corporate governance on Non-performing loans of the banking industry of Pakistan. The time period selected from 2006 to 2016 and source of data is annual reports of respective banks and the World Bank. In order to explain the relationship between the governance system and non-performing loans used descriptive, correlational and panel data analyses. The results revealed a negative and significant effect of corporate governance on nonperforming loans of sample firms of the study. Therefore, suggested for the banking industry of Pakistan to implement and make sure their reports according to corporate governance code compliance to control non-performing loans.

1-Ihtesham Khan
Assistant professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Ilyas
Lecturer, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.

3-Shehzad Khan
Assistant professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.

Effects of Corporate Governance on Capital Structure and Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from Listed Cement Corporations in Pakistan
Pages : 197-205

The key aim of current research is to investigate the influence of CG on financial performance (FP) and capital structure (CS) of cement companies listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX). To accomplish this purpose, twenty cement firms listed on the PSX was deployed from 2005 to 2014. Auto-correlation and heteroscedasticity were tested and Regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. SPSS 21 is conducted to perform the analyses.CG is analyzed via board size, board independence, and institutional ownership while, return on assets and return on equity are employed to analyze FP, whereas CS is calculated via debt to equity. The outcomes document that CG positively affects FP, however, negatively impact CS. This research not only contributes to examining the impact and association between CG, FP, and CS but also prove the outcomes of previous studies that have presented a significant influence and association between CG, FP, and CS.

1-Mahboob Ullah
PhD Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, Preston University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Nouman Afgan
Associate Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Preston University, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.

3-Sajjad Ahmad Afridi
Assistant Professor,Department of Management Sciences, Hazara University Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.

International Financial Reporting Standards, Accounting Conservatism, and Firm Performance: Evidence from UAE
Pages : 206-213

European Union passed a resolution in 2002, which bound all the listed companies and firms and required the consolidated and simple accounts to use Financial Reporting Standards starting from January 2005. It will improve firm performance and will have an influence on the information environment for the listed firms. This study provides empirical and theoretical literature regarding the adoption of IFRS, accounting Conservatism and firm performance. This paper provides different theories that discuss the impact of IFRS and accounting conservatism on a firm performance that includes positive accounting theory, modernization theory, contingency theory, and world system theory.

1-Maqsood Haider
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences,FATA University, F.R. Kohat, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Aamir
Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Muhammad Tahir Khan
Assistant Professor,Faculty of Economics and Business, University Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia.

Aspect[s] of the Corporate Governance that Matter in a Firm's Value: Evidence from Non-Financial Firms in Pakistan
Pages : 214-220

Corporate governance (CG) is key to enhance firm’s value. The purpose of this research is to examine effects of various aspects of corporate governance on firm’s value. We used secondary penal data of 100 companies on Pakistan Stock Exchange for the period: 2010 – 2016. Findings revealed that among other aspects of CG, managerial ownership and board size have significant influence on the value of a firm. Among controlled variables, firm size and firm ages were also found significant in firm’s value. We are convinced that findings of this study would help addressing agency issues through effective corporate governance measures. This study has come up with some practical implications as well. It is suggested that for better firm performance and increasing efficiency the board size may be kept at minimum.

1-Sammar Abbas
Assistant professor,Institute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science & Technology, KP, Pakistan.

2-Zeeshan Zaib Khattak
Assistant professor,Institute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science & Technology, KP, Pakistan.

3-Hafeez Ullah
Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science & Technology, KP, Pakistan.

Teachers' Misconceptions in Science: Implications for Developing a Remedial Teacher Training Program
Pages : 221-228

This study is designed to investigate future teachers’ misconceptions in heat and temperature concepts. The objectives of the study were to find out (i) misconceptions of future teachers in concepts of heat and temperature, (ii) to develop a counteractive teacher-training program for certain misconceptions and (iii) to establish the efficiency of treatment. The study sample was 96 prospective science teachers. Convenient sampling method was used in the study. Data from 96 respondents were collected in phase one of the study. Experimental treatment (lesson) based on the 5Es learning model was prepared in the second phase of the study and implemented in the third phase of research. A two tiers test, consisting of 12 items was used to collect data. Each tier was based on choices. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and t-test. The study explored the misconceptions of prospective teachers’ about heat and temperature concepts and established the importance of experimental treatment.

1-Saria Rasul
Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Education, University of Management Technology Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Abid Shahzad
Assistant Professor,Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Zafar Iqbal
Adjunct Professor, Director Graduate Studies UMT Lahore,Punjab, Pakistan.

Tobacco Farming and Its Social Impacts on Farmers in the Rural Mardan, Pakistan
Pages : 229-234

Despite the growing concern regarding the hazardous effects of tobacco by the international community, tobacco farming still prevails worldwide. This study was planned to explore how the rural farmers perceive the significance of tobacco farming in term of its social impacts on the farming community in district Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Tobacco farming was taken as independent variables and its social impacts on the farmers were selected as the outcome variable. The social impact variable was operationalized with sub-variables as income, social status, expanding kin relationships, labor opportunity, and linkages with people of different social background. Data were collected from 144 tobacco growers through structured questionnaire and analyzed through correlation and regression models. The study concluded that tobacco farming brings about positive impacts on the social status of the farming community by increasing their income, elevates their social status, expands kin relationships, and provides labor opportunity to the farmers.

1-Khalil ur Rahman
Assistant professor,Department of Sociology,Hazara University, Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.

2-Syed Imran Haider
Assistant Professor,Department of Sociology, Allama IqbalOpen University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Abid Ali
PhD Scholar, Department of Sociology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

The Interplay of Nationalism and Religion in Pashtun Society: An Analysis
Pages : 235-240

This paper discusses the role and interplay of nationalism and religion in the context of Pashtun society. Both nationalism and religion have been pivotal in shaping the international system and in guiding the mutual interactions of human beings and social groups. For the Pashtun society, both religion and nationalism simultaneously exist . Historically, the role and impact of both phenomena have been varied. However, as a result of Pakistans policy of strategic depth and the resultant Afghan Jihad in Afghanistan vis-à-vis the USSR, religious extremism and radicalization have increased specifically in the Pashtun areas of Pakistan and this rise has conversely impacted the nationalist fervor of the Pashtuns resulting in the decline of the Pashtun nationalism.

1-Surat Khan
Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Political Science, University of Peshawar, Kp, Pakistan.

An In-depth Analysis of Peers and Mentors' Feedback during Teaching Practicum
Pages : 241-249

It is very essential to provide quality and effective feedback to the prospective teachers during practicum to provide information about their teaching strengths and weaknesses. Provision of feedback helps them to remove their mistakes and improve their teaching practice. The aim of this study was to examine the role of peer’s and mentor’s feedback on the performance of prospective teachers during practicum. 6 prospective teachers and 3 mentors were interviewed by the researcher. The whole data was collected from 3 public universities of Lahore city. Findings of this study revealed that peer’s and mentor’s feedback plays an important role in their learning and professional development during practicum. This study suggests that universities should conduct some training programs, seminar and workshops for prospective teachers and their mentors to provide awareness about the role of peer’s and mentor’s.

1-Tahira Kalsoom
Assistant professor, Research and Evaluation Department, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Fakhra Aziz
Assistant professor, Research and Evaluation Department, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Sadaf Jabeen
Assistant Professor, Education Department, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Meta-Analysis Approach towards Importance of In-Service Training in Teacher's Professional and Social Development
Pages : 250-256

The paper highlights the significance of in-service training and establishes that its role cannot be denied in a teacher’s professional and social development. It plays significant role in enhancing teacher’s competencies and improves teacher’s teaching skills. Its role is of vital importance in achieving teaching and learning outcomes. In-service teacher training enables teacher to have awareness about the advanced instructional technologies used in the teaching-learning process. This equips teacher with modern teaching tools, enhancing a teacher’s efficiency and effectiveness. The in-service teacher training program is a systematic attempt to change teacher’s attitudes and beliefs and also bring changes in classroom practices. A teacher undergoes different experiences and practices after joining teaching profession. In-service teacher training improves these experiences and practices. Its role is also of vital importance in developing quality education.

1-Zafar Saleem
Assistant Professor , Department of Education ,Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K, Pakistan.

2-Mohummad Ishaq
Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K, Pakistan .

3-Ziarab Mahmood
Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K, Pakistan.

The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with the Academic Achievement of Students
Pages : 257-263

The objective of this study was finding the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. 384 students from secondary and high secondary school participated in this study. A significant relationship was found between academic achievement and Emotional Intelligence with the p-value = 0.01. The mean difference in emotional intelligence score of the students who secured high academic scores were found high. i.e. 58.57 as compared to the mean of emotional intelligence score of the students who secured low academic scores i.e. 56.93. A significant correlation was also found between Emotional Intelligence and academic scores(r=0.130). The results of the study suggest that higher emotional intelligence leads to better educational outcomes. An individual with a high level of Emotional Intelligence could have a strong, stable, and positive state of emotional well-being. Students who have a positive state of emotional wellbeing are more open to new experiences, which research has shown to lead to more learning.

1-Iram Afridi
PhD Scholar, Institute of Education and Research,University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

2-Arshad Ali
Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

A Multiple Mediation Analysis of the Growth in New Ventures
Pages : 264-270

The current research investigates the mechanism that how new ventures growth is affected through entrepreneurial business ties. The study introduces multiple mediators to the model to clearly establish the link between business ties and new ventures growth. To test the hypotheses, data were collected from 325 new ventures operating in Pakistan from 2015 to 2017. We found a positive and significant relationship between business ties and new ventures growth. We also found that resource leveraging, resource bundling and resource acquisition fully mediates the stated relationship. Based on our findings we concluded that new ventures give more attention to resource leveraging and resources bundling as well in order to perform well. Managerial and theoretical implications are also discussed.

1-Sajid Rahman
Assistant Professor, Institute of Business & Management Sciences (IBMS), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

2-Imran Saeed
Assistant Professor, Institute of Business & Management Sciences (IBMS), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

3-Fahad Afridi
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Science,CECOS University of Science & Technology, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

African and Chinese Counter-Colonial Fictional Narratives: A Comparative Study of the Retrieval of Indigenous Cultural Identities
Pages : 271-277

The oppressive British and chauvinistic Japanese colonialism imposed a hegemonic culture in Africa and China. Things Fall Apart by Achebe and Red Sorghum by Mo Yan demonstrate British and Japanese colonial misshaping of African and Chinese cultures respectively. In response, the indigenous writers sustain their identity and culture crumbling under colonial corrosion. Things Fall Apart deals with the bitterness of colonialism in Africa, while Red Sorghum deals with Chinese colonial experiences. This article addresses the question how these authors, despite their different spatial and temporal contexts, encounter the hegemonic administrative structures and discourse. The principles of intertextuality are exploited to unveil the colonial governance structure and the literary reassertion of the colonized. Postcolonial theory helps unearth the colonial strategies and retrieval of the colonized identity. Said’s ‘filiative’ and ‘affiliative’ principles help evaluate how these ‘liminal intellectual(s)’ encounter the oppressive ideology

1-Pinkish Zahra
Visiting Lecturer,Department of English Literature, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2-Sabir Hussain
Visiting Lecturer,English Literature, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

3-Ghulam Murtaza
Associate Professor, Department of English Literature,Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Linguistic Identity Construction of Shina Speakers: An Ethnographic Study
Pages : 278-283

The present research intends to investigate the linguistic identity construction of Shina speakers in different contexts. The objective of the study is to study the pure Shina identity and to see how language use varies according to context. An ethnographic study was conducted to find out how Shina speakers construct their linguistic identities in different contexts. The sample for this research was purposive which included multilingual Shina speakers and the data was collected through interviews. The data was analyzed using Markedness Model by Myers- Scotton (1993). The findings of the study revealed that multilingual Shina speakers construct their linguistic identity in their interaction through code- switching and code mixing. It was found that a pure Shina identity is constructed at home and in close circles whereas a hybrid identity is constructed at the work place and formal context.

1-Shamim Ara Shams
PhD Candidate, English, National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Zia Ul Haq Anwar
Assistant Professor,Linguistics & Literature,Karakoram International University Gilgit, Gilgit, Pakistan.

Problems Caused by Tourism in Kaghan Valley, Pakistan: A Study Based on Local Community Perception
Pages : 284-291

Tourism being one of the greatest and fastest growing industries of the world is contributing significantly to the development of countries and the host communities. But this industry is facing many problems in most of the developing countries including Pakistan. Most of the issues are raised due to lack of planning which not only dissatisfies the tourists but also has negative impacts on the local communities. Unplanned tourism not only affects the host guest relationship but also the tourism resources of an area. The study in hand is author’s part of PhD research and highlights the problems of host regions caused by tourism in Pakistan, taking Kaghan valley as case study. The results of the study show that if proper measures are not taken well in time, the unplanned tourism will destroy the natural and socio-cultural environment of the valley very soon.

1-Anas Mahmud Arif
PhD Scholar, Department of Archaeology,Hazara University Mansehra, Kp, Pakistan.

2-Shakir Ullah
Associate Professor,Department of Archaeology,Hazara University Mansehra, Kp, Pakistan.

3-Abdul Samad
Director,Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Effects of Media Exposure on the Political Polarization Patterns of Students in Pakistan
Pages : 292-298

Political polarization remains central to the political behavior scholarship. In this study, political polarization patterns among the youth of Pakistan with reference to selective exposure approaches of media were examined. Survey from 420 students of Pakistan public sector universities was conducted. It was found that selective exposure to media is still strong in Pakistan, however diverse exposure is also being witnessed in Pakistan. Now the people are also diverting towards diverse exposure. Consequently, political polarization among the university students of Pakistan is still strong. Findings imply that media in Pakistan is playing an important role in strengthening the democracy in Pakistan. Furthermore, it is also concluded that media played a key role to determine voters’ choice during Elections-2013 in Pakistan.

1-Muhammad Zahid Bilal
Assistant Professor, Department of Communication Studies,University of Okara, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Arshad Ali
Assistant Professor, Center for Media and Communication Studies, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Sami Ullah
Assistant Professor, Department of Economics,University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

Peer Tutoring: An Effective Technique To Enhance Students English Writing Skills
Pages : 299-305

This study aimed to determine the effect of peer tutoring (PT) in enhancing students’ writing skills during English textbook taught to the students of Grade XI. The true experimental research pre/post-test design was used. The sample of the study comprised of 70 male and 58 female students containing each 35 male peer tutoring group (PTG) and non-peer tutoring group NPTG as well as each 29 female PTG and NPTG after matched before intervention. MCQs related to writing skills developed as a tool for data collection process. The tool is used in both pre and post-test for PTG and NPTG. The difference in both groups was calculated using statistical analysis. Linear regression predicted the effect size of male PTG 16.376 points higher (r = 0.860) than NPTG as well as female PTG 12.183 points higher (r = 0.813) than NPTG. These results indicated that PT technique enhanced students’ academic achievement.

1-Humair Akhtar
Teacher,Department of Education,The University of Haripur, Haripur, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Saeed Khan
Assistant Professor, Department of Education,The University of Haripur, Haripur, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Saddaf Ayub
Assistant Professor, Department of Education,The University of Haripur, Haripur, Punjab, Pakistan.

Usage Patterns of Western Televised Contents in Pakistan: A Use and Gratification Approach
Pages : 306-317

The main objective of the research was to find out the preference wise list of western televised programming among the viewers in Islamabad. By applying the stratified sampling technique, 292 respondents were finalized for analysis. It was found that entertainment programming was mostly consumed western televised contents and then, educational and political. The usage of western televised contents was assessed due to dissatisfaction about their own programming, educational and political systems. They preferred the western programming and systems comparatively a better choice.

1-Farrukh Nazir
Student,Center for Media and Communication Studies,University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Arshad Ali
Assistant Professor,Center for Media and Communication Studies, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Muhammad Farooq
Student,Center for Media and Communication Studies, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

A Fresh Perspective on Female Entrepreneurship: An Insight from Pakistan
Pages : 318-325

his research explores the dynamics of women entrepreneurs in the context of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Underpinning on contemporary literature on drivers and barriers of women entrepreneurs, this research argues that literature and empirical evidences on negotiations is scarce and underdeveloped. Therefore, capitalizing on an interpretive qualitative assumption, this research collected date through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through thematic analysis. Conceptually, this research provides a fresh and novel perspective by providing interesting inside from empirical evidences. This research concludes that women entrepreneurs in Peshawar, Pakistan cultural and social constraints. However, personal motivation and family support helped them to negotiate with these constraints.

1-Shahwali Khan
Assistant Professor,Management Sciences,Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

2-Mohammad Sohail Yunis
Assistant Professor, Management Sciences, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan

3-Fahad Abdullah
Associate Professor,Management Sciences, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

White Womans Burden: A Critique of White Womens Portrayal in Selected Postcolonial Fiction
Pages : 326-331

Image of white women occur frequently in postcolonial writings. This paper attempts to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the white womens portrayals in the selected Pakistani postcolonial fiction to determine the comparative discrepancy between the assumptions and reality about the role of white women in the colonies. The white women being the part of civilizing mission of the white man, are seen with a particular light by the indigenous people because in comparison to the white man, white womes role has been that of a benevolent mother. This problematizes the situation and hence calls for the investigation into the portrayals and the roles of the white women as projected by the indigenous writers. The study delimits to Forster, Sidhwa, and Hamid and analyses the selected chunks of the text under the lens of theoretical frame work proposed by Jayawardena within the postcolonial context.

1-Zia Ahmed Dogar
Professor,Department of English,Government Emerson College Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Akbar Sajid
Language Instructor,Department of English, Jazan University, SaudiArabia.

3-Muhammad Riaz Khan
Language Instructor, Department of English, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on the Financial Performance of Bidding Banks in Pakistan
Pages : 332-340

Merger and acquisition (M&A) is a growth policy for business to achieve desire objectives. Its importance is showed by the number of transaction in the previous year. Thus, this study is conducted to know about the influence of M&A on firm performance. The current study is to identify the influence of M&A (pre and post) on bidding banks in Pakistan. And then to analyze factors of firm, industry and countrylevel effect the financial performance of M&A firms. For this purpose, selected 51 listed bidder banks during 2002-2013 and used descriptive statistics, Z test, and regression models for analysis. Results show that M&A is failed to produce a fruitful result for bidding banks in Pakistan. Hence, recommended that direction and practical implication are provided to banks, investors, and policymakers to get knowledge about M&A to secure their investment from financial losses.

1-Muhammad Faizan Malik
Assistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Kp, Pakistan.

2-Ihtisham Khan
Assistant Professor,Institute of Business Studies and Leadership,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Kp, Pakistan

3-Muhammad Ilyas
Lecturer, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Kp, Pakistan.

Mediational Role of Job Satisfaction between Servant Leadership and Employees Commitment: Empirical Evidence from Private Universities
Pages : 341-348

This study was taken to explain the role of job satisfaction as a mediator between servant leader behavior and employees commitment. Altruistic calling, persuasive mapping and organizational stewardship were the strong predictors of employees commitment. A structured questionnaire was used to get responses from 136 faculty members of different private universities. The findings of this work showed that faculty members from private universities not only affirm their behavioral importance while making policies and rules for the reward system (Job satisfaction) but showed their concerns to develop and adopt its behaviors as well. The contribution of this present study is not only to add to the novelty of literature in the field of servant leadership model approach, but it also contributes towards the employees commitment and job satisfaction in private universities. Theoretical, as well as practical suggestions, are provided at the end of the paper.

1-Muhammad Azizullah Khan
Associate Professor,Management Sciences,Preston University, Kohat, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Abid Usman
Professor, Business Administration, Iqra National University, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan

3-Muhammad Hashim
Lecturer,Higher Education,GCMS, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

Estimating Convergence (and Divergence) among Developing, Emerging and Developed Economies
Pages : 349-363

Economic growth process is explained by many scientists in order to materialize a cherished objective of economic growth across the globe. In the current study, convergence among developed, developing and emerging countries has been estimated. Convergence process was estimated by employing sigma, beta and omega techniques. Analysis was done for three time periods i.e. from 1980 to 2018, from 1980 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2018. Sigma and beta analysis for the period from 1980 to 2000 showed divergence among countries however there are difference among developed, developing and economies Omega analysis showed divergence of developed countries and convergence among developing and emerging countries. Last analysis from 2001 to 2018 showed convergence among countries. The results are consistent with the adoption of information technology. Therefore, fast spillover effects of information technology help the countries in convergence process and make this world a global village.

1-Babar Hussain
PhD Scholar, Department of Economics,Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Rizwan Yaseen
Assistant Professor,Department of Economics, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Sofia Anwar
Professor,Department of Economics, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

A Study to Adopt the Primary School Children on Number Conservation Ability through Piaget Cognitive Theory
Pages : 364-374

The main objectives of this study were: (1) To determine the accomplishment of conservation ability among the primary school children (2) To compete for the conservation ability of the rural and urban school children and male and female school children. The population was all the primary schools in Kohat District. Four urban as well as two rural schools were taken as a sample of the study. In the abovementioned sample, 160 students were randomly selected 80 from rural and 80 from urban. And from rural 40 male and 40 females as well as from urban 40 male and 40 females were selected for the study. Researchers have personally visited and administered the conservative capacity (CAT) tasks of students. For data analysis percentage was used. The children of rural school perform better than urban school students because late school enrolment and the performance of females are slightly better than that of male school children.

1-Muhammad Naseer Ud Din
Associate Professor, Institute of Education & Research, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, KP, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Zaigham Qadeer
Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, AIOU, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Mumtaz Gul Khan
Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Development, Chilas Campus, Karakoram International University, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan.

The Efficiency Analysis of Domestic and Foreign Commercial Banks of Pakistan: The Data Envelopment Analysis Approach
Pages : 375-382

The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficiency of domestic and foreign commercial banks of Pakistan over the period from the year 2009 to 2013 through the DEA technique (Data envelopment analysis). DEA estimates efficiency by the ratio of inputs (multiple) to outputs (multiple). For this purpose, the number of employees, deposits and fixed assets were used as inputs while Advances and Investments were taken as the outputs based on the intermediation approach. Two generic forms of DEA explicitly CCR and BCC were applied to work out technical and pure-technical efficiencies, respectively. Results offered significant information to make the decision about the efficiency of commercial banks. The study outcomes showed that foreign owned banks performed better against public and private owned banks in respect of all the efficiency measures throughout the period of study.

1-Farhat Ullah Khan
Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.

2-Aziz Javed
Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.

3-Khalid Rehman
Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.

Russia's Annexation of Crimea and Security Implications for the Baltic States
Pages : 383-389

This article discusses Russia's annexation of Crimea and its security implications for the Baltic States. The study exclusively examines two considerable impacts of the Russian annexation of Crimea, in term of its Compatriots and Hybrid warfare strategies on the security of the three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) through qualitative and descriptive analysis. It discusses Russia's Compatriot policy which was behind this annexation, and how this policy is an essential tool of the Kremlin against the Baltic States using their large portion of the population comprised of ethnic Russians. The paper finds that Russia annexed Crimea due to its geostrategic importance. Each of the three Baltic States also has strategic significance for the Russian Federation. In this sense, Russia's aggressive policies are becoming a great challenge for the security of the three States. This instant study highlights the security implications of the Russian annexation of Crimea for the Baltic States in a descriptive-analytical way.

1-Muhammad Javed
PhD Scholar, Department of Political Science & International Relations, Qurtuba University of Science & IT, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

2-Nazim Rahim
Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science & International Relations, Qurtuba University of Science & IT, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

3-Assad Mehmood Khan
PhD Scholar, Department of Political Science & International Relations, Qurtuba University of Science & IT, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

Chinese Co-Existence and Harmonious Policy and CPEC
Pages : 390-397

Image Why does China adopt a harmoniously and Co-existence policy? Is this a strategy for international development? This paper is an attempt to explore Chinese co-existence and harmonious policy towards CPEC. China’s co-existence and harmonious policy and CPEC are interconnected to each other. Co-Existence and harmonious policy are two major indicators of Chinese developmental Philosophy.This policy has been inspired by Chinese socialist roots since its revolution in 1949. The noninterference, peaceful co-existence, and harmonious principles are major policies tools that have shape up the Chinese new global development order. Chinese capital accumulation and advancement is based on its policy of ''noninterference.'' These are significant feature of China’s capital accumulation and development model that manufactured new global economic order. The Chinese official stance over global investment policy is harmonious and co-existence, which is embedded in the theory of realism. This seems like one of the successful policies for international cooperation and development. Co-Existence and Harmonious realism are the major determining factor to protect Chinese development interests and its global outreach

1-Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad
Assistant Professor, Centre for Policy Studies, COMSATS University-Islamabad, Pakistan/ Post-Doctoral Fellow, School of Politics and International Relations, The University of Nottingham United Kingdo

The US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy towards Pakistan (1990-2000)
Pages : 398-406

The nuclear issue is considered to be one of the most important concerns in the Pak-US affairs since the 1970s. The issue further transpired after May 1998 when India conducted its second nuclear test, followed by Pakistan. Moreover, the US shared its critical concern over Pakistan’s nuclear programme since 1990. Afterwards, the US imposed sanctions on Pakistan to penalize the country and restrict the State of Pakistan from developing nuclear weapons. The Indian nuclear tests in May 1998 furthered the overall frustration in the U.S. administration which paved the way for taking some strong economic restrictions against India and Pakistan. It also became a concentrated challenge for the US to avoid any expected nuclear clash between Pakistan and India in the post-nuclear tests scenario. In this article, the US policy of nuclear non-proliferation toward Pakistan in the 1990s has been extensively examined in chronological order to set a proper score of literature for the researchers and academicians. Also, the study is conducted based on the secondary source of data, published interviews and a comparative analysis of US assistance to Pakistan in the 80s and 90s, to bring up the faded facts.

1-Fazal Rabbi
Associate Professor/Head, Department of Pakistan Studies/History, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Munazza Mubarak
Lecturer, Department of Pakistan Studies, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Javid Ali Kalhoro
Assistant Professor, Department of Pakistan Studies, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Religious Seminaries and Muslim Education in Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent: A Critical Historical Analysis
Pages : 407-414

This paper focuses on the history of Islamic studies and the growth of Muslim edification scheme subsequent to the arrival of Islam in South Asia (712 A.D) and also explores the key role played by the Emperors in its establishment since 1206 A.D. Thereafter, it will highlight the efforts of Muslim rulers in introducing religious-cum-modern education system through Madrassah (religious seminaries) in Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent including the period of British-India from 1757 to 1947 A.D. which adversely affected the Muslim education system by introducing foreign educational reforms to target the curriculum of the Islamic education system. The paper will shed light on the development of Madrassahin Pakistan and the 9/11 incident that has drastically affected the image of the religious seminaries in imparting Islamic education to the people in the global community.

1-Azmat Ali Shah
Department of Political Science, Qurtuba University of Science & Information Technology D.I. Khan, KP, Pakistan.

2-Fazal Ilahi Khan
Department of Islamic Studies, Qurtuba University of Science & Information Technology D.I. Khan, KP, Pakistan.

3-Saima Razzaq Khan
Department of Political Science, Qurtuba University of Science & Information Technology D.I. Khan, KP, Pakistan.

Autism Spectrum in Classroom and Special Educationist: A Panorama of Challenges in Facilitating Teaching-Learning Process
Pages : 415-420

Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong developmental disabilities that can impact how students understand, what they see, hear and otherwise sense. This can result in difficulties with learning, communication, and behavior in their classroom. To execute this phenomenological research study in private schools of autism, the researchers were keen to dig out and try to listen to the perspectives of the special educationists regarding challenges in facilitating the teaching-learning process. Through semi-structured interviews, data were collected from twenty (20) special educationists working with children diagnosed on the spectrum of autism disorder. The majority of the special educationists reported that during teaching, they must execute various intervention strategies by incorporating different tools provided by the school. Their one major issue was time management because they have to handle every kind of issues arouse by the child and environment, alone during teaching. It was reported that the general education curriculum is also difficult to teach alone because they have not received any kind of specialized curriculum for such kids.

1-Asmaa Azeem
Assistant Professor, Department of Special Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Almas Shoaib
Phd Scholar, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Fauzia Naheed
Professor, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Employment Barriers for Persons with Hearing Impairment in the Job Market: Employers' Perspectives
Pages : 421-432

This study investigated the employers' perspectives on the decent employment barriers faced by persons with hearing impairment in the job market. A survey questionnaire was developed based on literature review and the ILO model, which was validated by experts of the field and then pilot tested to determine its reliability. Data were collected from 81 employers using the snowball sampling technique. Average mean values of data related to employment barriers were calculated to rank order these to prioritize the barriers that need to be addressed most urgently. Ranking revealed that education and training, unavailability of technical support, financial support, poor implementation of quota system represent the sequence of the urgency of the barriers. Further, a onesample t-test was used to compare the mean of employment barriers with a 75% preset criterion value. The findings of the t-test showed that the mean value of all the barriers was significantly less than 75%. The study recommended that there is a great need to propose a policy that clearly focuses on decent employment for the PWHI.

1-Faiza Abbas
Phd Scholar, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Faisal Anis
Assistant Professor, Institute of Islamic Banking, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Mohammad Ayaz
Associate Professor, Department of Banking and Finance, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Impact of Sectarian Violence on Pakistan's Security and Politics
Pages : 433-440

The sectarian violence got the moment during Zia's reign when the Deobandi sect created violent militant groups as Sipah-e- Sahaba and Lashkar-e-Jhangvi. In contrast, the Shia sect created Sipah-i-Mohammad Pakistan under the banner of the Afghan Jihad. Both Deobandi and Shia sects had ignited the violent clashes, which led to many innocent people's massacre. This moment of violent clashes was continued during the reigns of Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif, wherein the governments had ignored the violent activities of both religious factions. However, the incident of 9/11 had changed the dynamics of this violent conflict when the Musharraf government banned all militant groups for overcoming the extremism. This paper explores the polarization among the Deobandi and the Shias and their influence on Pakistan's national security. This paper suggests that the government should scrutinize all madrassas' curricula by removing hatred materials from the scheme of madrassas' study.

1-Shafiq Qurban
Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Politics and International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Rubina Ali
Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Politics and International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Under Western Eyes: A Critical Consideration of Fictitious Muslim Stereotyping in English Fiction
Pages : 441-450

English fiction pertaining to the British rule in India marked Indian Muslims intovisibility through the portrayal of their stable stereotypical identity, and since its publication, A Passage to India has gained the status of authentic imagining of Muslims asconservative religious ‘Other’ of the West. As such, they are analyzing this text as an instance ofcolonial fixity necessitates the identification and consideration of those discursive strategies used bythe text for the projection of abrasive Muslim images. The focus of this paper is to critically approachA Passage to India through the application of Fairclough’s threedimensional model so as to validate the claim of stereotypicalrepresentation of Muslims in India during colonial rule. Largely amatter of despotic manipulation within the text, the narrator doteson the anecdotal treatment of Muslim characters with a purpose tojustify. By adhering to colonial discursive binarism, this noveldepicts colonized Muslims as dehumanized and caricatured othersin essentialist terms by shelving their political, historical andcontextual identification.

1-Kanwal Zahra
Assistant Professor, Centre for Languages and Translation Studies, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Aisha Jadoon
Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Internet Infrastructure in Africa: Status and Opportunities
Pages : 451 – 461

There is a major information gap in Africa, where access to information is structurally disabled.This study was conducted taking the University of Dodoma in Tanzania as a case study. The causes for poor internet access were identified as: Lack of alignment between last-mile, middle-mile, and long-range network infrastructure; Tyranny of bad on-premises network design; Up to 15 network hops just to leave on-premises network architecture; Lack of best-practice templates and benchmarks for on-premises, middle-mile and national backbone network architecture in emerging and developing markets; and local operators charging exorbitant bandwidth prices. The US Federal Communication Commission’s (FCC) definition of broadband is 25 Mbps per host. The World Bank defines broadband as 12 Mbps per hundred consumers.According to the United Nations, broadband is a basic human right and an absolute necessity for productivity and sustainable growth

1-Muhammad Tehsin
Assistant Professor, Department of Defence % Strategic Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Muntazir Mehdi
Works at Microsoft.

From Text to Context: Hermeneutics of Sacred Texts and Gendered Public Sphere in Islam
Pages : 462 – 469

The Quran is a primary sacred text for all Muslims which provides a basic idea of Islamic legislation and women role in politics. There are numerous verses in the Quran that teaches the followers to understand and support the participation of women in politics in a given context. Hermeneutics of Quran and the gendered public sphere have complex and critical relationships with each other. The sacred religious text of the Quran is interpreted in multiple perspectives depending on socio-cultural and historical context. Society largely reconcile its intellectual tone through interpretation of text and knowledge production. The paper is an attempt to elaborate on the hermeneutics of the Quran in the context of women's politics. There is a contradictory hermeneutical debate on Quranic text on the issue of women existing in the political sphere. Interpretation is a continuous process and deeply embedded in socio-cultural dynamics. Based on a principles of hermeneutics, Quran is considered to be for all times and ages. As per the rhetoric of the 21stcentury, the contemporary hermeneutics of the Quran provides equal human space to all genders.

1-Saiqa Jabeen Shouket
MPhil Scholar, Department of Islamic and Religious Studies, Hazara University-Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad
Assistant Professor, Centre for Policy Studies, COMSATS University-Islamabad, Pakistan/ Post-Doctoral Fellow, School of Politics and International Relations, The University of Nottingham United Kingdo

Discursive Exploration of Historicity of Ancient Punjab in Heer by Waris Shah
Pages : 470-475

This study argues that the critical analysis of the discourse of a given time and place determines the identity, the social life as well as the social roles of people in that social order. With the help of the theorization of Fairclough and Wodak (1997), it explains how Waris Shah in his renowned discourse 'Heer' uncovers the historicity or social and cultural embedments during the 18thcentury Punjab. For Fairclough and Wodak the supremacy/ inferiority of social elements is being exercised via discourse. Waris Shah skillfully portrays in his epic poetry Heer how supremacy/ inferiority is interlocked with every incident of the individual(s) and society. His discourse exhibits that whosoever holds authority misuses it to subjugate others.

1-Asma Ghulam Rasool
Assistant Professor, Department of Punjabi, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Kaneez Fatima
PhD Scholar, Department of Sociology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Nafees Pervez
M.Phil. (English) Department of English, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

Gwadar Port as the Socioeconomic Pivot to China Pakistan Economic Corridor: Prospects and Repercussions
Pages : 476 – 482

China is emerging as an economic power of the world and correspondingly it has unleashed a strategy of its sustained economic growth alongside socioeconomic development of the region and beyond, through implementation of its envisaged grand Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). In this regard, Pakistanis accommodating China’s flagship project, China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The success of CPEC hinges on the unhindered development and sustenance of Gwadar Port for assured uninterrupted sea - land linkage of CPEC. Besides supporting CPEC, Gwadar Port has gigantic potential to contribute towards Pakistan’s socioeconomic development and improving socioeconomic stature of landlocked Central Asian States. Geopolitics always play its role in all regional and international developments which embody clash of interest among stakeholder states and development of Gwadar Port is no exception. Alongside enormous prospects of payoffs, Gwadar Port encounters serious challenges to its development and sustenance, which have not been much deliberated in academic discourses. This paper, besides ascertaining the socioeconomic impacts of Gwadar Port on Pakistan, China, regional states and CPEC, identifies international repercussions and domestic challenges to Gwadar Port’s success; thus help the policy makers to draw pertinent conclusions.

1-Sultan Maqsood
Ph.D Scholar, Area Study Centre, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Maliha Zeba Khan
Ph.D Scholar, School of Politics and International Relations, Quaid-i- Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Sajjad Ali Khan
Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.

Gender Discrimination in Legal Profession in Pakistan
Pages : 483-489

Data shows that there is an obvious gender imbalance in legal profession in Pakistan. The study was taken under the objective to find out the main reasons and causes of the gender imbalance in the legal profession in Pakistan. Gender discrimination is mainly considered the major factor behind gender imbalance in the legal profession in Pakistan. For the purpose of exploring the field the researcher framed the research question and collected public opinion through surveys and interviews. The opinion collection through questionnaires was taken from two cities and interview taken from government officers as well as senior lawyers.Due to limited resources, the researcher selected two district bars of Lahore and Faisalabad. The analysis made from the data collected shows that the legal profession is not gender biased. Females do not feel insecure in the legal profession and there is no harassment or eve-teasing in the workplace. The findings and conclusion shows that gender imbalance is not totally due to gender discrimination but it is one of the many factors that cause gender imbalance in the legal profession.

1-Shazia Hassan
Lecturer (Law), The Institute of Legal Studies (TILS), Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Amara Khanam
Lecturer (Law), The Institute of Legal Studies (TILS), Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Tajwar Waseem Khan
Lecturer (Law), The Institute of Legal Studies (TILS), Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Digitalisation of Revenue Laws in Pakistan
Pages : 490-495

Data The computerization of land records and the introduction of new administrative models have greatly improved public access and control over land records in Pakistan. However, an ongoing problem faced by many landlords on a daily basis is the challenge of 'long distance loading', which could be solved by vertically extending the Arazi Records Center to the union council level. Increase. Research findings show that digitizing land registry services is costly and inaccessible to relevant authorities when needed. In addition, informal payments and lengthy procedures remain prevalent. To address these issues, it is recommended that authorities initiate awareness campaigns at the village level and regularly monitor personnel to improve existing systems.

1-Muhammad Tahir
Assistant Professor, Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan

2-Muhammad Shahid
MA, LLM, Advocate High Court, Pakistan.

3-Tahreem Farrukh
Assistant Professor, School of Law, Karachi University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

Re-thinking Folkloristic Subjectivity as Queer Spiritual Discourse in Saif-ul-Malook
Pages : 496-503

The intersection of folk narratives with queer spirituality presents an ontological displacement of subjectivity triggered by an inquiry towards the nature of identity. Decentering of identity to the extent of modification of the self into a trans-human relationship mediated through love between a fairy and a man is a queer spiritual experience which creates anti-normative spaces hitherto celebrated in folklores. This paper explores societal oppressive apparatuses fore-grounded in assertive religious discourse forcing people to seek reliance against such faith-based norms in folkloristic tradition and to create spaces where their sexuality is celebrated rather than condemned. Saif-ul-Malook is the folk narrative in the regional literature of Punjab by Mian Muhammad Bukhsh (1830-1907). It describes the love tale of a Prince with a fairy. Positioning queer subjectivities amidst a metaphysical worldview is an attempt of resorting to inner conflict of self through gender and sexuality. By separating spirituality as sociological discourse from discursive religious practices, our paper investigates queer spirituality in different folkloristic forms on experiential standards than that of belief systems.

1-Kaneez Fatima Sayeda
Assistant Professor of English , Government Graduate College (W) Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan.

2-Kanza Umer Khan
Lecturer in English, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

3-Asma Humayun
Assistant Professor of Punjabi, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

Pedagogy as a factor of (In)tolerance: An Analysis of Teaching Practices at the University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Pages : 504-511

The study explores the relationship between teaching practices and the level of tolerance at higher education institutions through the concurrent triangulation method. The Mix Method Research technique was used to analyze the data. For qualitative data, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with a focus on understanding the teaching patterns and practices at the university. The level of interpersonal tolerance among students was measured through an existing scale. The thematic discussion on issues of equality in the learning process; teachers' reflective practices; Discussion and debate in the classroom; creativity and critical thinking; freedom of speech and expression; and students' self-confidence and authority in the learning process are the focus of this paper. The study reveals that learner-centred instruction, which focuses on engaging students and providing them with a broader perspective, facilitates logical debates among students from diverse backgrounds.

1-Jamil Ahmad
Professor, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

2-Bilal Shaukat
Lecturer, Institute of Peace & Conflict Studies, University of Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

3-Anila Javed
Medical Social Officer, Gandhara University, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.