Global Social Sciences Review - GSSR

Volume 2, Issue 2 (Fall-2017)

Pak-US Relations: Understanding of the Misunderstandings
Pages : 1-23

This paper critically analyses the US and Pakistan relations in historical context and thereby comprehends the causes of misunderstandings between them, especially under the new administration of Donal Trump. Like other states in our world both Pakistan and USA have priorities to secure their national interests as both have their own way of protecting their interest in short, medium or long terms. The paper finds that unlike the US which makes a policy that focuses only on the current scenarios, Pakistan keeps in view the lessons from past betrayals from US and her future needs arising from her security issues related to her neighbours i.e. Afghanistan and India. Pakistan also fears Indian involvement in Afghanistan and the US support to India in Afghanistan in general and particularly in the region. Pakistan needs to understand US mistrust for rapid proliferation (even legal) to earn easy money to strengthen its weak economy. From the US perspectives, it strategy regarding Pakistan is no different from that of a major powers as she only focuses short terms objectives. USA needs to realize that the strategic location of Pakistan and the nuclear capability makes her an important country that bestows on her the right to be treated like medium power in the region. It not only about dealing with mutual misunderstandings related to realization of mutual concerns but it is also about peace, security and future of every sixth human being on earth who lives in the region or maybe its impacts can go far beyond to the whole world. Therefore, both Pakistan and the US need to address each other's concern and work on converging lines.

1-Asghar Khan
Lecturer, Department of Regional Studies, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

2-Ayaz Ahmad
Lecturer Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Pakistan.

3-Amjad Ali Dadda
Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management, UK

Emerging Political Economy of CPEC Future Dynamics and Perspectives for Pakistan
Pages : 24-40

The study focuses on China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as a great regional, political and economic force, which would lead the region to a prosperous future. The route of CPEC is not only a connection between Gwader and Khunjrab but it is also "a motorway of political economy" which would become a track to development and sustainable prosperity. No doubt, the route leads to cooperation in the transition of resources and increase the bilateral trade partnership but there emerge various questions. The present study provides detailed analysis of how the route connects Asia to Europe and provides access the local markets. The study further recommends that Gwadar Port is one of the shortest ways for China rather than Strait of Malacca or any other international route. At the end, based on an in-depth critical evaluation, the study recommends the strategy of boosting its Political Economy on emergency basis.

1-Muhammad Zia Rehman
Assistant Professor, Department of LMS, National Defense University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Asif Khan
Independent Research Scholar, Islamabad, Pakistan

3-Qaim Raza Jaffry
Director & Instructor at National Defense University Islamabad, Pakistan

Afghan Displaced Persons: Resettlement, Reintegration and Repatriation
Pages : 41-67

At the commencement of the 21st century, a visible change is occurring in human relationship, but several areas still demand initiation of new developments, ideas, concepts along with practices for a discernible shift in global society. The idea of belonging is one of those concepts, which needs redefinition on the basis of existing positions and experiences of asylum seekers, refugees, displaced persons and migrants. The 'battlefield' for ending the cold war rivalry of superpowers, once again has become an arena for the war on terror, bringing massive destruction to the population at the hands of warring parties. Millions of lives perish due to fratricidal fighting and a huge number of persons are displaced and forced to live in camps. The statistics of the Afghan government and the UNHCR indicate that half a million people are still internally displaced due to continued conflict, violence and prevalent human rights' violation. Majority of such persons are living in camps or camp-like settings for decades and it is an alarming fact that displaced persons are 'more vulnerable and worse-off than the urban poor' who face insufficient housing or shortage of livelihood due to unemployment while displaced persons are facing numerous issues like insecurity, forced eviction, unemployment, poverty and repatriation due to ongoing conflicts. The paper analyzes all these aspects.

1-Mussarat Jabeen
Chairperson, Department of International Relations & Political Science, University of Lahore

2-Sajid Mahmood Awan
Senior Research Fellow, National Institute of Historical & Cultural Research, QUA, Islamabad, Pakistan

US Afghan Strategy: Policy Responses of China and Pakistan (2001-2017)
Pages : 68-84

This paper attempts to explore the level of variations in the pattern of foreign policies of Pakistan and China to US Afghan strategy. To investigate this question, the paper examines US strategy in Afghanistan. The current administration under Trump and announcement of China Pakistan Economic Corridor further complicated the US presence in Afghanistan. The study analyses the factors that are responsible for differences between Pakistani and Chinese stance. About the results, China's response was an outcome of their foreign policy principles, that is not to indulge in direct clash with the US and Western world. The interests of China in Afghanistan are linked to that of Pakistan, South and Central Asia. China does not want to wage unilateral talks with Taliban at the cost of Pakistan's interests. While on the other hand, post 9/11 2001, Pakistan could not resist the pressure of US policies in Afghanistan because it was heavily dependent on the US, economically, militarily, politically and diplomatically. The respective Political structure and culture; their foreign policy priorities, goals, and tradition; perception of threat and resulting priorities; political and economic dependence; location, policy options and decision-making and professional capabilities of decision making were jointly responsible for their differences.

1-Ijaz Khalid
Demonstrator & PhD Scholar, Department of Political Science, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan

2-Bushra Qureshi
MPhil Scholar, Department of Pakistan Studies, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan

3-Shazia Hassan
Assistant Professor, LMS Department, Faculty of Contemporary Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Kashmir at Crossroad: The Partition's Unfinished Agenda
Pages : 85-108

Independent dominions in shape of Pakistan and India emerged as result of partition on 14 August and 15 August 1947 respectively while the fate of over 500 princely states awaited decision. Due to overwhelming majority of Muslims, Jammu and Kashmir should have acceded to Pakistan. The hardness in Indian stance resulted in the two wars i.e. of 1965 and 1971 besides two limited wars of 1947-48 and 1999Kargil war. South Asia remained on the brink of war in 2002 standoff and the current escalations in Azad Kashmir. Contrarily, both Pakistan and India had agreed upon the United Nations resolutions, including, "the accession of the state of Jammu and Kashmir will be decided through free and impartial plebiscite under the auspices of United Nations". The Indian strategy was to gain time on the pretext that "Indians are superior to Pakistanis in military and industrial power therefore Pakistan would accept a settlement imposed by the Indians". Additional India pleaded that Pakistan had joined defence Pacts with west, so India moved away from the process of Plebiscite. Now, India wants to discuss only terrorism brushing aside the core issue of Kashmir. Resultantly, the people of Kashmir are at the mercy of despotic and tyrant Indian Forces and they are suffering the most. How long the innocent population of Kashmir will be looking to ask the world to come forward for an open hearted settlement of this long outstanding dispute? The situation may escalate into a nuclear flashpoint.

1-Hikmat Afridi
Phd Scholar, Department of Politics & IR , International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan

2-Manzoor Khan Afridi
Assistant Professor and HoD, Department of Politics & IR , International Islamic University Islamabad, Pakistan

3-Ijaz Khalid
PhD Scholar and Demonstrator, Department of Political Science, AWKUM, Mardan, Pakistan

A Critical Analysis of Terrorism and Military Operations in Malakand Division (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa)
Pages : 109-121

The 9/11 was a paradigm shifting event in the international and global politics. On September 11, 2001, two jet planes hit the twin's tower in United States of America (USA). US official authorities said that it is done by alQaeda. This event also changes Pakistan's internal and foreign policies. The government of United States compel Afghan Taliban government to handover the master mind of 9/11 attack and their leader Osama bin Laden but the talks failed between the both governments. Therefore US government compel the government of Pakistan to give us Military bases and assistance against Afghan Taliban. Pakistan agreed with US as frontline ally of US in war on terror. The majority of Pakistani people were not happy with the decision, therefore, some non-state actors appeared in different part of the country especially in Malakand Division and FATA to support Taliban regime in Afghanistan. In Malakand Division Mulana Sufi Muhammad head of Tehrik Nifaz-e-Shariat-e-Muhammadi started a proper armed campaign for Afghan Taliban Support and sent thousands of people to Afghanistan support Taliban against US and their allied forces. It was a basic reason behind the emergence of terrorism in Malakand division KP but it did not played it role alone to cause terrorism in the region. Many other important factors i.e. weak political administration, unemployment, economic deprivation, socio-political instability constituted the main reason that opened room for non-state actors to consolidate their grip on the region.

1-Musab Yousufi
PhD Scholar,Department of International Relations, Qurtuba University of Science & Information Technology, D.I. Khan Pakistan

2-Fakhr Ul Islam
Professor and Director, Pakistan Study Center, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

From Peace Talks to Operation Zarb e Azb: Politics of Consensus Building for Counter Terrorism
Pages : 122-136

Pakistan faced severe challenges of violent extremism and terrorism after US invasion of Afghanistan. The successive governments pursued both political and military means to bring an end to this problem but to no avail. The war against terrorism was highly unpopular among the people and it was the main cause of failure to combat terrorism. In 2013, the newly formed government led by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif decided to give peace a chance after a decision of an All Parties Conference (APC). Consequently, the dialogue process, through the committee members nominated by the government and Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), ensued that kindled the hope of peace and stability in the country. However, the process was crippled after a few months and government launched a military operation against TTP and other militant outfits in the country. The paper explores the factors that lead the government to start peace talks with TTP and analyzes the challenges that dialogue process faced and ultimately caused its failure. Finally, it highlights the benefits, particularly the national consensus to combat terrorism that dialogue process produced despite its failure to bring peace in the country.

1-Manzoor Ahmad Naazer
Assistant Professor, Department of Politics & International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

2-Sadaf Farooq
Assistant Professor, Department of Politics & International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

3-Masood Rehman Khattak
Lecturer, Department of Politics & International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

A Study on Employee Engagement through Employee Development in the Banking Sector of Pakistan: Case
Pages : 137-145

This case study has been conducted to explore the significance of employee development and employee engagement in private banking sector in Pakistan. An investigative method has been opted to perform this study in order to scrutinize the effect that employee development has on the engagement of employees. This has been done selecting various branches and business units of a private sector bank as sampling units. A carefully designed questionnaire to particularly measure a number of relevant factors is provided to the employees. The factors include Self-Directed Learning, Empowerment, Employee Education, Participation and Skill Growth. Data has been collected from a sample size of 2128 employees. Analysis was done through the application of descriptive and rational statistic in SPSS version 23.0. Major findings state that employee development is associated with employee engagement through empowerment and participation. Hence, Employee Development is positively influencing engagement of employees in the given context.

1-Maria H Nadeem
Research Consultant, University of Leicester

2-Muhammad Usman Ghani
MPhil Scholar, Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

3-Syed Asad Ali Shah
MPhil Scholar, Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

Prospects of Enduring Peace in Afghanistan: Avoiding Zero Sum Game in Af-Pak Region
Pages : 146-161

Afghanistan has witnessed a turbulent history of long and devastating war due to Soviet unabated invasion of Afghanistan of ten years producing unbearable losses of life, institutions and society. The United States along-with the support of majority of Muslim countries supported Jihad to defeat communism. This victory was, however, short-lived as infighting among Afghan war lords later entangled the entire country with even graver consequence. The emergence of Taliban and resultant occupation of 70% of Afghanistan had brought some degree of stability by providing good governance and expeditious justice system, but failed to pragmatically adjust to international environment. The unfortunate incidents of 9/11 changed the world for foreseeable time with even harsher fall out for Afghan nation as unleashing of the war of terror destroyed the left over Afghanistan. The instability in Afghanistan has caused negative effects on Pakistan as next door neighbour, which has rendered all sorts of humanitarian, diplomatic and moral support to Afghan cause since Soviet invasion and has also suffered most in the process due to spill-over effects. The democratic government is incharge in Afghanistan after fall of Taliban regime in 2001 and several state institutions are also in place albeit at infancy stage, especially the security institutions, yet the prospects of enduring peace and stability are distant reality. More than three million Afghan refugees are still in Pakistan with very dim prospects of honourable return due to persisting instability. This paper highlights the causes of instability in Afghanistan with spill-over impact on Pakistan and suggests a course of action for enduring stability.

1-Waseem Ishaque
Assistant Professor at Department of International Relations, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan

2-Ghulam Qumber
Deputy Director, Research and Publications ISSRA National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan

3-Syed Jawad Shah
MPhil, Media Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Silencing the Silence: A Study of Women at Workplace
Pages : 162-176

This paper highlights the extent of women marginalization through silencing their voices at workplaces in the Pashtun society. Using the construct "muted group" theory a qualitative study of the participants with ages between 25 and 32 at Abdul Wali Khan Universy, Mardan (Pakistan) was undertaken. The analysis of response reveals that both males and females work equally, share equal work load, and can perform their duties well together. It is significant that despite the appearance of unbiased equal treatment to males and females the societal biases effect a reality that is contradictory to the facade of equality. The study established that males make use of authoritative language because of which females feel reluctant to share their thoughts openly due to the fear of being rejected at the work place. They conform to male domination and in this way appease the macho ego of males. Moreover, females are often made fun of when they talk; consequently they choose to remain silent. This marginalization explains why men think that women cannot share their thoughts clearly or cannot speak logically without realizing that there is something wrong with the way they deal with women.

1-Sayed Mahrukh
Independent Researcher, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan

2-Ayaz Ahmad
Lecturer, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan

3-Liaqat Iqbal
Assistant Professor, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan

Independent Kurdish State in Middle East: An Upcoming Epicenter of Middle East Power Politics
Pages : 177-189

The paper is an attempt to encompass the geo-political and geo-strategic fault lines which could put the region in a perpetual strategic dilemma leading to initiation of a strategic tug of war between the Middle Eastern Powers. The author has highlighted various pros and cons of establishment of an independent Kurdistan and its implications on the entire Middle Eastern Region. Moreover the author has analyzed various practical reasons behind the non-establishment of an independent state. Furthermore last part of paper focuses on the global and regional reactions on the establishment of new Kurd state followed by few policy options.

1-Farhat Kounain
Assistant Professor, Department of IR, National Defense University, Islamabad, Pakistan

2-Ahmed Saeed Minhas
Director, Research and Publication, ISSRA, National Defense University, Islamabad, Pakistan

3-Ghulam Qumber
Deputy Director, Research and Publication, ISSRA, National Defense University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Women, State and Islamic Legislation in Pakistan
Pages : 190 - 205

Pakistan has declared itself an Islamic state, but in terms of gender, its constitutional provisions are equal to all citizens. The gendered UN-evenness is embedded in the social fabric of society due to men’s domination over the mode of production. This unevenness is causing gendered segregation and alienation by women in a society. How does 'state' ideological orientation influence women's politics and their involvement in Islamic Legislation? This is a fundamental question that has been addressed in this paper. The available scholarship explained the nature of Islamic legislation and place of women in Islam. The present study is an attempt to explore the nature of the state and its ideological implications on women's role in Islamic legislation. Applying the qualitative approach, it has been found that the ideological nature of the state is structuring and re-organizing the relationship between women and legislation.Despite representation in the legislative process, women are yet alienated from control over the decision-making process.

1-Saiqa Jabeen Shouket
MPhil Scholar, Department of Islamic and Religious Studies, Hazara University-Mansehra, KP, Pakistan.

2-Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad
Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology- Abbottabad. Post-Doctoral Fellow, School of Politics and International Relations, The University of Nottingham United Kingdom (UK).